Western Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma mavortium
Tiger Salamander, Barred Tiger Salamander, Tiger Salamander,
Adults vary in color pattern, but background color is usually dark, with lighter blotches of yellow, tan, or green. Adults are large and heavy-bodied with a body length of 3 to 6 inches. Eggs and larvae: eggs are typically laid in small clusters of 5 to 120, but may be laid singly. Larvae are typically pale green or brown. They have external gills and are relatively large and heavy-bodied (0.75 to 4 inches). Coloration geographically variable to an extreme, often mottled, blotched, or spotted; adults are stocky, with 11 to 14 (usually 12 to 13) costal grooves, a broad head, small eyes, and tubercles on the soles of the feet; pond-type larva (but lacks balancers), with three large pairs of gills, vomerine teeth in U-shaped pattern, and dorsal fin extending to region of axilla; adults usually are about 15 to 22 cm in total length (to about 34 cm) (Stebbins 1954, 1985; Behler and King 1979; Conant and Collins 1991).
The following pertains to metamorphosed adults. Differs from A. macrodactylum in lacking a distinct dorsal stripe or stripelike row of spots. Differs from A. gracile in having distinct dorsal markings and tubercles on the underside of the feet and by lacking parotoid glands and a glandular ridge on the tail. Differs from A. annulatum in lacking a light grayish stripe along the lower side of the body and generally lacking narrow light bands across the body. Differs from A. maculatum and A. opacum in having large light blotches on the sides. Differs from A. talpoideum in having sharply defined spots and usually more than 11 costal grooves (vs. 10 to 11). Differs from all other North American Ambystoma in having tubercles on the soles of the feet. Differs from plethodontid salamanders in lacking a nasolabial groove.
Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 1733
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Has breeding migrations.
Tiger Salamanders in Montana are primarily associated with prairie or agricultural habitats. They breed in ponds, lakes, springs, intermittent streams, and stock ponds, usually those without fish present. Adults go to the breeding ponds soon after snowmelt; after breeding, adults may remain in the ponds or move to upland areas and live in burrows. Eggs hatch in 2 to 5 weeks and metamorphosis takes 2 to 24 months. In some locations larval salamanders never transform, but rather become sexually mature and breed while retaining external gills (referred to as neoteny). These salamanders are often called "axolotls" or "water dogs." Are benthic in ponds but may enter upper water column at night. At high elevation, tend to select warmest water in ponds (rarely above 25 C). Shallows during day, deep water at night.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
Larvae; Western Colorado; mostly arthropods, taken proportional to abundance. Adults: Southern Manitoba percent by weight: Cammarus 87, coleoptera 7, hirudinea 8.
Late metamorphosis probably caused by temperature rather than food abundance. Paedomorphic populations tend to occur at higher elevations. High elevation populations use behavioral thermoregulation (Heath 1975).
Breeds in May on prairie; June to mid-August at 7780 feet in southwestern Montana. Eggs hatch in approximately 15 days, June to August. Metamorphose in August of first year on prairie; not until year 2 to 3 at high elevation.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Behler, J.L. and F.W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred E. Knpf, Inc., New York.
- Conant, R. and J.T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, MA. 450 pp.
- Heath, A.G. 1975. Behavioral thermoregulation in high altitude tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum. Herpetologica 31(1): 84-93.
- Stebbins, R.C. 1954. Amphibians and reptiles of western North America. McGraw-Hill, New York. Xxii + 528 pp.
- Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 336 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- [WESCO] Western Ecological Services Company. 1983a. Wildlife inventory of the Knowlton known recoverable coal resource area, Montana. Western Ecological Services Company, Novato, CA. 107 p.
- [WESCO] Western Ecological Services Company. 1983b. Wildlife inventory of the Southwest Circle known recoverable coal resource area, Montana. Western Ecological Services Company, Novato, CA. 131 p.
- Bergeron, D. 1978. Terrestrial Wildlife Survey Coal creek Mine Area, Montana. Unpublished report for Coal Creek Mining Co., Ashland, Montana.
- Black, J.H., and A.N. Bragg. 1968. New additions to the herpetofauna of Montana. Herpetologica 24: 247.
- Bramblett, R.G., and A.V. Zale. 2002. Montana Prairie Riparian Native Species Report. Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Montana State University - Bozeman.
- Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior. 1981. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Unpublished report for the Crow/Shell Coal Lease, Crow Indian Reservation, Montana.
- Cope, E. D. 1879. A contribution to the zoology of Montana. American Naturalist 13(7): 432-441.
- Cope, E.D. 1867. A review of the species of the Amblystomidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 19: 166-211.
- Day, D. 1989. Montco Terrestrial Wildlife Monitoring Report. Unpublished report for Montco, Billings, Montana.
- Dood, A.R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 pp.
- Farmer, P. J. 1980. Terrestrial Wildlife Monitoring Study, Pearl Area, Montana, June, 1978 - May, 1980. Tech. Rep. by WESTECH for Shell Oil Co.
- Gehlbach, F.R. 1967a. Ambystoma tigrinum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 52.1-52.4.
- Glass, B.P. 1951. Age at maturity of neotenic Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium Baird. American Midland Naturalist 46: 391-394.
- Hamilton, W.J. Jr. 1946. Summer habitat of the yellow-barred tiger salamander. Copeia 1946: 51.
- Hendricks, P. and J.D. Reichel. 1996. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland District, Custer National Forest: 1995. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 79 p.
- Knopf, G.N. 1962. Paedogenesis and metamorphic variation in Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium. Southwest Naturalist 7: 75.
- Martin, P.R. 1980a. Terrestrial wildlife habitat inventory in southeastern Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena MT. 114 p.
- Matthews, W.L. 1979. Wibaux-Beach wildlife baseline study - nongame species. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 93 p.
- Micken, L. 1968. Some summer observations on the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) in Blue Lake, Madison County, Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences, Billings, Montana volume 28: 77-80.
- Norris, D.O. 1989. Seasonal changes in diet of paedogenetic tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium). Journal of Herpetology 23: 87-89.
- OEA Research. 1985. Wildlife Inventory:Monitoring Report for the CX Ranch Project. 1983-1984. Unpublished report for Consolidation Coal Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- Peterson, C.R., E.D. Koch and P.S. Corn. 1992. Monitoring amphibian populations in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks final report to University of Wyoming. National Park Service Research Center, Laramie, WY. 37 p.
- Rauscher, R.L. 2000. Tiger salamander axolotls in southwest Montana, final report. Bozeman, MT: Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. 28p.
- Reichel, J. D. In prep. Amphibian and reptile survey of USFWS lands in north-central Montana: 1996. Unpublished report.
- Reichel, J.D. 1997. Amphibian, reptile and northern bog lemming survey on the Rocky Mountain Front: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 81 p.
- Reichel, J.D. 1997. Amphibian and reptile survey in northcentral Montana on the Lewistown District, BLM. Unpublished report.
- Sestrich, Clint. 2006. 2006 Hebgen Reservoir Amphibian Survey, USDA Forest Service Annual Progress Report to PPL Montana. Hebgen Lake Ranger District. Gallatin National Forest. West Yellowstone Montana.
- Shaffer, H.B. and M.L. McKnight. 1996. The polytypic species revisited: genetic differentiation and molecular phylogenetics of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum (Amphibia: Caudata) complex. Evolution 50(1): 417-433.
- Thompson, L.S. 1981. Circle West wildlife monitoring study: Third annual report. Technical report No. 8. Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Helena, Montana.
- Thompson, L.S. 1982. Circle West Wildlife Monitoring Study. Fourth annual report. Technical report 10. Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Helena, Montana.
- Webb, R.G. and W.L. Roueche. 1971. Life history aspects of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) in the Chihuahuan desert. Great Basin Naturalist 31(4): 193-212.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks and D.L. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Montana. Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT. 262 pp.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Amphibians"