Pacific Treefrog - Pseudacris regilla
Adults have a dark, conspicuous eye line extending from the nostril to the shoulder. Basic coloration varies, with background color green, brown, gray, reddish, or bronze. Dark spots and stripes are often visible on the head, back, and legs. Most have a dark Y or triangular spot on the head between the eyes. Adult body length is 0.75 to 2 inches. Eggs and Tadpoles: Eggs are laid in small clusters of 10 to 70. The tadpoles are brown/bronze with eyes located on the sides of the head.
This is the only frog in Montana with a combination of obvious toe pads and an eye stripe ending at the shoulder.
Western Hemisphere Range
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Pacific Chorus Frogs are regularly found in the water only during the breeding period in spring. They announce their presence during this time by calling frequently at night and sporadically throughout the day. Following breeding, they move into adjacent uplands and are rarely seen. In western Montana they breed in temporary ponds in lower elevation forests and intermountain valleys shortly after snowmelt. Eggs hatch in 2 to 3 weeks and tadpoles take 8 to 10 weeks to metamorphose. Use shallow, quiet waters for breeding. Move along ground or in low shrubs at night. Take shelter during day in dense vegetation, under rocks/logs, in rodent burrows, etc. (Nussbaum et al. 1983).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
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- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
Severe droughts can affect populations (Schaub and Larsen 1978). Primarily nocturnal (Black 1970).
Northern ID: males arrive in breeding ponds early to mid-April; females mid- to late April. Eggs layed April to mid-May; hatch early to mid-May. Metamorphose mid-Jul to mid-September. Prefer warmer, more open ponds, but observed calling in water 2 C, air 0.5 C (Schaub and Larsen 1978).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Black, J.H. 1970. Amphibians of Montana. Montana Wildlife, Montana Fish and Game Commission. Animals of Montana Series 1970(1): 1-32.
- Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, Jr. and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press. Moscow, ID. 332 pp.
- Schaub, D. L. and J. H. Carson, Jr. 1978. The reproductive ecology of the Pacific treefrog Hyla regilla. Herpetologica 34(4): 409-416.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
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