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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Toad Rush - Juncus bufonius

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4
C-value: 3

Agency Status


External Links

General Description
Fibrous-rooted annual. Stems ascending to erect, terete, 2–15 cm, branched at the base. Leaves basal and cauline; blades channeled, <1 mm wide; auricles absent. Inflorescence open with ascending branches and clusters of 1 to 3 sessile flowers in axils of upper leaves (nodal bracts). Flowers with prophylls; tepals narrow, green with scarious margins, 4–7 mm long; outer acuminate; inner acute, shorter; stamens 6. Capsules 3–4 mm long, rounded at the tip; seeds apiculate (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range


Range Comments
Circumboreal south to most of North America (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 57

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Vernally moist, often disturbed soil of meadows, stream banks, margins of ponds, wetlands; plains, valleys, montane (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Cope, M.G. 1992. Distribution, habitat selection and survival of transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) in the Tobacco Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 60 p.
    • Culver, D.R. 1994. Floristic analysis of the Centennial Region, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 199 pp.
    • Eggers, M.J.S. 2005. Riparian vegetation of the Montana Yellowstone and cattle grazing impacts thereon. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. 125 p.
    • Jones, W. W. 1901. Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College. 78 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Toad Rush — Juncus bufonius.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from