American Black Bear - Ursus americanus
Coat black (often with white on chest), brown or blond; slight shoulder hump, but highest point of body above hips; muzzle straight and long in profile; claws of front feet dark, strongly curved, and shorter (seldom more than 1 1/2 inches) than those of Grizzly Bear; males weigh 180-250 lbs., occasionally up to 400 lbs.; females weigh 120-180 lbs. Largly nocturnal; usually solitary; dig less elaborate dens than Grizzly Bears, often in natural cavities (trees, rocks), under logs, brush piles, or even buildings; climb trees easily (MTFWP 1992). Pelage color varies, usually black in the eastern U.S., black, brown, cinnamon, blue-black, or whitish in western North America; snout brown, straight in profile; small rounded ears; five toes on both front and rear feet; head and body length 150-180 cm, tail about 12 cm, mass about 90-140 kg for females, 115-270 kg for males (Burt and Grossenheider 1964, and Nowak 1991).
Differs from the Grizzly Bear in having the claws of the forefeet only a little longer than those on the hind feet (about twice as long in the Grizzly Bear), length of second upper molar less than 29.5 mm (in part of range where Grizzly Bear occurs), snout profile straight rather than dished, and in lacking a prominent hump at the shoulders; maximum size of American Black Bear is less than that of the Grizzly Bear (170-280 cm head and body length) (Hall 1981 and Nowak 1991).
Western Hemisphere Range
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Non-migratory, but American Black Bears sometimes exhibit long distance movements.
Dense forests; riparian areas; open slopes or avalanche chutes during spring green-up (MTFWP 1992). Habitat use tied to seasonal food availability/plant phenology. Dry mountain meadows in early spring; snow slides, stream bottoms, wet meadows in early and mid-summer. May concentrate in berry and whitebark pine areas in fall (Tisch 1961, Barnes and Bray 1967, and Jonkel and Cowan 1971).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: mtnhp.org/requests
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Grasses, sedges, berries, fruits, inner bark of trees, insects, honey, eggs, carrion, rodents, occassional ungulates (especially young and domestic), and (where available) garbage (MTFWP 1992). Diet varies: Spring - primarily vegetation (grasses, umbels, and horsetails); summer - herbaceous and fruits; fall - berries, nuts, and some vegetation. Insects a frequent component of diet. Also mammals, birds, and carrion (usually minor) (Tisch 1961).
Sympatric with Grizzly Bear but more prone to occupying closed canopy areas. Natural cub and adult mortality low, sub-adult mortality higher (Jonkel and Cowan 1971). American Black Bears sometimes involved in various crop/property depredations.
Similar to Grizzly Bear, except females often first breed at 2 1/2 or 3 1/2 years of age; in very poor habitat, may not breed until 6 1/2 (MTFWP 1992). Estrus May 25 to August 10; peak in June. In NW MT first estrus at 4.5 years, often no litter until 6.5 years old. Average litter size 1.5 to 1.8 young/female. Litters every 2 to 3 years. Reproductive rates may be tied to softmast availability (Jonkel and Cowan 1971).
For information on living with bears and avoiding conflict see the Bear Smart Society's website
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Barnes, V.G. and O.E. Bray. 1967. Population characteristics and activities of black bears in Yellowstone National Park. Co. Coop. Wildl. Research Unit, Ft. Collins, CO. 199 pp.
- Burt, W.H. and R.P. Grossenheider. 1964. A field guide to the mammals. Houghton Mifflin Co.
- Jonkel, C.J. and I.T. McCowan. 1971. The black bear in the spruce-fir forest. Wildl. Monogr. 27 :1-57.
- Montana Dept. of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. 1947-1992. Annual black bear hunting and harvest statistics. Helena.
- Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. Fifth edition. Volumes I and II. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 1629 pp.
- Tisch, E.L. 1961. Seasonal food habits of the black bear in the Whitefish Range of northwestern Montana. M.S. thesis. University of Montana, Missoula. 108 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Allen, R. B. 1985. Research and management implications of the pursuit of black bears with trained bear dogs. M.S. thesis. Univ. of Montana, Missoula. 51 pp.
- Allen, T.D.H. 2011. Wildlife guards for deer and Black Bear. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 71 p.
- Anaconda Minerals Company, and Camp, Dresser & McKee. 1981. Anaconda Stillwater Project 6-month environmental baseline report. CDM Project No. 3139. Vol. I Appendix. Jan. 15, 1981.
- Andersen, K. W., and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1971. Mammals of northwestern South Dakota. Univ. Kan Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub. 19:361-393.
- Anonymous. 1956. Black bear boudoir. Montana Wildlife 6(1):25.
- Aune, K. 1992 (in press). Comparative ecology of black and grizzly bears on the Rocky Mountain Front, Montana. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage.
- Aune, K., T. Stivers, and M. Madel. 1984. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigation. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 239 pp.
- Beak Consultants, Inc. 1983. Wildlife. January 1983. In Stillwater Project Environmental Studies. Addendum A, Wildlife. Vol. I. Tech. Report No. 7. 1982.
- Boggs, Keith., , Field inventory of wildlife resources . . . WICHE Proj. No. D117. Spec. Oc./Habitat Type.
- Buck, C.L. 1939. Pattern correlation of mammalian teeth as a means of identification. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 55 p.
- Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc., 1990, Stillwater Chromite Project Baseline Data Report: Hydrology and Wildlife Monitoring, Hydrology - November 1988 through November 1989, Wildlife - November 1988 through February 1990. June 30, 1990
- Carriles, H. 1987. Grizzly/black bear interactions and competition. M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.
- Casebeer, R. L., M. J. Rognrud and S. M. Brandberg. 1950. Rocky Mountain goats in Montana. Montana Fish and Game Comm., Wildl. Rest. Div. Bull. No.5. 107 pp.
- Chapman, J.A., and G.A. Feldhamer. 1982. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
- Chester, J.M. 1976. Human-wildlife interactions in the Gallatin Range, Yellowstone National Park, 1973-1974. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 114 p.
- Clark, J. D. and K. G. Smith, editors. 1991. Proceedings of the eastern workshop on black bear research and management. Univ. Arkansas. 150 pp.
- Confluence Consulting Inc. 2010. Montana Department of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports (various sites). MDT Helena, MT.
- Confluence Consulting Inc. 2012. Montana Department of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports (various sites). MDT Helena, MT.
- Confluence Consulting Inc. 2013. Montana Department of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports (various sites). MDT Helena, MT.
- Cronin, M.A. 1986. Genetic relationships between White-tailed Deer, Mule Deer and other large mammals inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 49 p.
- Darling, L., and R. Archibald, editors. 1990. Bears--their biology and management. Proc. Eighth Int. Conf. on Bear Res. and Manage., Victoria, British Columbia, Feb. 1989. 438 pp.
- Eng, R.L. 1976. Wildlife Baseline Study [for West Fork of the Stillwater and Picket Pin drainages]
- Enk, E.A. 1999. Population dynamics of bighorn sheep on the Beartooth Wildlife Management Area, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 177 p.
- Farmer, Patrick J., and Thomas W. Butts, Western Technology & Eng., Inc., Helena, MT., 1994, McDonald Project Terrestrial Wildlife Study, November 1989 - November 1993. April 1994. In McDonald Gold Project: Wildlife & Fisheries. [#18]. Seven-up Pete Joint Venture, Lincoln, MT. Unpub. No date.
- Farmer, Patrick. J., et al., Western Technology and Eng., Inc., Helena, MT., 1984, Montana Tunnels Project Baseline Terrestrial Wildlife Study. December 14, 1984. In Application for a Hard Rock Operating Permit, Montana Tunnels Project, Jefferson County, Montana. Vol. 3. Environmental Baseline Reports. (Centennial Minerals, Inc., Hydrometrics, 1984?)
- Flath, Dennis and David Dickson. 1994 Systematic wildlife observations on the Blackfoot-Clearwater Wildlife Management Area 1991-1993. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. American Society of Mammalogists, Special Publication Number 12. Lawrence, KS. 278 pp.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Greer, S.Q. 1987. Home range, habitat use, and food habits of black bears in south-central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 91 p.
- Grigg, J.L. 2007. Gradients of predation risk affect distribution and migration of a large herbivore. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 94 p.
- Guenther, G.E. 1989. Ecological relationships of bitterbrush communities on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 73 p.
- Haroldson, M. 1988. Home ranges, movements & spatial relationships of black bears in west central Colorado. M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.
- Hatier, K.G. 1995. Effects of helping behaviors on Coyote packs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. M Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 78 p.
- Herrero (ed.). Bears: their biology and management. IUCN Publ. new ser., No. 23, 371 pp.
- Hoffmann, R.S. and D.L. Pattie. 1968. A guide to Montana mammals: identification, habitat, distribution, and abundance. University of Montana, Missoula. 133 pp.
- Horner, M. A. and R. A. Powell. 1990. Internal structure of home ranges of black bears and analyses of home-range overlap. J. Mammal. 71:402-410.
- Johnson, B.J. 2018. Permeability of three-strand electric fences by black bears and grizzly bears. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 56 p.
- Jonkel, C. 1965. Black bear population studies. State of MT, Proj. No. W-98-R-4.
- Jonkel, C. J. 1961. Tips on hunting black bear. Montana Wildlife. July.
- Jonkel, C. J. 1964. Estimating whole weights of black bears from hog-dressed weights. J. WildI. Manage. 28:581.
- Jonkel, C. J. 1967. Black bear population studies - big game research. Montana Dept. of Fish and Game. Job CompI. Rep., Fed. Aid Proj. No. W-98-R-l,2,3,4,5,6, Job No. B-1. 148 pp.
- Jonkel, C.J. 1967. The ecology, population dynamics, and management of the black bear in the spruce-fir forest of northwestern Montana. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 170 pp.
- Joslin, Gayle. 1980. Wildlife inventory and hard rock mining impact analysis of the West Cabinet Mountains and Lake Creek Valley, Lincoln County, Montana. MTFWP 91 pgs + 47 pgs app.
- Kasworm, W. 1985. Cabinet Mountains grizzly bear study: 1984 annual progress report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena. 81 pp.
- Kasworm, W. and T. Manley. 1988. Grizzly bear and black bear ecology with the Cabinet Mountains of northwest Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 122 pp.
- Kasworm, W. F. 1987. Black or grizzly? Montana Outdoors. Vol. 18(3):8-10.
- Kasworm, W. F., and T. J. Thier. 1991. Black bear survival rates in northwest Montana. In K. Aune, comp., Proc. Mont. Chapt., The WildI. Soc., Bozeman.
- Kendall, K. C. 1986. Grizzly and black bear feeding ecology in Glacier National Park, Montana. Progress Report. Glacier National Park Science Center, West Glacier. 42 pp.
- Kendall, K.C. 1981. Bear use of pine nuts. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 27 p.
- Kolenosky, G.B. and S.M. Strathearn. 1987. Black bear. Pages 442-454 in M. Novak, J.A. Baker, M.E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds. Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America. Ontario Trappers Assn. and Ontario Ministry Nat. Res., Toronto, Ontario.
- Lariviere, S.. 2001. Ursus americanus. American Society of Mammalogists, Lawrence, KS. Mammalian Species No. 647:1-11.
- Mack, J. A. 1990. Black bear dens in the Beartooth Face, south-central Montana. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 8:273-277.
- Mack, J.A. 1988. Ecology of black bears on the Beartooth Face, south-central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 119 p.
- Martin, Steve A., ECON, Inc., Helena, MT., 1982, Flathead Project Wildlife Report, 1981-1982. November 30, 1982.
- Martinka, C. J. and K. L. McArthur, (eds). 1980. Bears--their biology and management. Bear Biology Assoc. Conf. Ser. No. 3. Bear Biology Assoc., Boise, Idaho. 375 pp.
- Mattson, D. J., R. R. Knight and B. M. Blanchard. 1992. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990. Journal of Mammalogy 73:422-425.
- Maxell, B.A. 2016. Northern Goshawk surveys on the Beartooth, Ashland, and Sioux Districts of the Custer-Gallatin National Forest: 2012-2014. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 114pp.
- McArthur, K. L. 1978. Homing behavior of tranplanted black bears, Glacier National Park. UnpubI. Prog. Rep., USDI National Park Service, Glacier National Park. 21 pp.
- McArthur, K. L. 1981. Factors contributing to effectiveness of black bear transplants. J. WildI. Manage. 45:102-110.
- Mussehl, T.W. and F.W. Howell (eds.). 1971. Game management in Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, Mont. 238 pp.
- Newlon, K.R. 2005. Demography of Lewis's Woodpecker, breeding bird densities, and riparian Aspen integrity in a grazed landscape. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 101 p.
- Northrop, Devine and Tarbell, Inc. 1995. Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Developments, 1994 Wetland Mapping and Assessment Study, Volume I of II. 27 pp. plus appendices.
- OEA Research, Helena, MT., 1982, Beal Mine Wildlife Report. June 17, 1982.
- Oechsli, L.M. 2000. Ex-urban development in the Rocky Mountain West: consequences for native vegetation, wildlife diversity, and land-use planning in Big Sky, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 73 p.
- Ostheimer, W.A. 1998. The biogeography of Montana Black Bear genetics. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 31 p.
- Pattie, D.L. and N.A. M. Verbeek. 1967. Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Plateau. Northwest Science 41(3): 110-117.
- Picton, H. D., and K. Kendall. 1992. Chromatographic differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage 9.
- Reid, F. 2006. Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 608 pp.
- Reinhart, D.P. 1990. Grizzly bear habitat use on cutthroat trout spawning streams in tributaries of Yellowstone Lake. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 128 p.
- Rust, H. J. 1946. Mammals of northern Idaho. J. Mammal. 27(4): 308-327.
- Schladweiler, Philip, and John P. Weigand., 1983, Relationships of endrin and other chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to wildlife in Montana, 1981-1982. September 1983.
- Schleyer, B.O. 1983. Activity patterns of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and their reproductive behavior, predation and the use of carrion. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 130 p.
- Stansberry, B.J. 1991. Distribution, movements, and habitat use during spring, summer, and fall by mule deer in the North Salish Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 64 p.
- Stearns-Roger Inc., 1975, Environmental baseline information of the Mount Vernon Region, Montana. January 31, 1975.
- Stivers, T.S. 1988. Effects of livestock grazing on grizzly bear habitat along the east front of the Rocky Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 80 p.
- Stoneberg, R. P. and C. J. Jonkel. 1966. Age determination of black bears by cementum layers. J. Wild. Mgmt. 30(2):411-414.
- Swensen, J.E., W.F. Kasworm, S.T. Stewart, C.A. Simmons, and K. Aune. 1987. Inter-population applicability of equations to predict live weight in black bears. Bears: Their Biology and Management. 7: 359-362.
- Thier, T. 1990. Population characteristics and the effects of hunting on black bears in a portion of northwestern Montana. M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula. 104 pp.
- Thier, T. 1991. Summary of questionaire given to spring black bear hunters in northwestern Montana. In K. Aune, comp., Proc. Mont. Chapt., The WildI. Soc., Bozeman.
- Thompson, Richard W., Western Resource Dev. Corp., Boulder, CO., 1996, Wildlife baseline report for the Montana [Montanore] Project, Lincoln and Sanders counties, Montana. In Application for a Hard Rock Operating Permit and Proposed Plan of Operation, Montanore Project, Lincoln and Sanders Counties, Montana. Vol. 5. Stroiazzo, John. Noranda Minerals Corp., Libby, MT. Revised September 1996.
- TVX Mineral Hill Mine, Amerikanuak, Inc., Gardiner, MT., 2002, Yearly summary of wildlife observation reports. 1990-2002 Letter reports.
- Tweten, R.G. 1984. Baseline survey of furbearing mammals within the South Fork drainage Sun River, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 63 p.
- U.S. Forest Service, Kootenai National Forest. Montana Dept. of State Lands., 1978?, Final Environmental Impact Statement. Proposed Plan of Mining and Reclamation. Troy Project, Asarco, Inc., Lincoln County, Montana. Vol. III.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2002, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana. 2001 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 2000 - November 30, 2001. Febr. 26, 2002.
- Wasem, C. R. 1968. Movement and management of marked black bears in Glacier National Park. UnpubI. Rep., USDI National Park Service, Glacier National Park. 12 pp.
- Welsh, C., and H. D. Picton. 1983. An investigation of grizzly bear and black bear scat separation using bile acids. Report to the National Park Service. 11 pp.
- Westech, Inc. [Western Technology and Engineering]. 1989. Reconnaissance of terrestrial wildlife resources in the Pauper's Dream project vicinity, Aug. 1988. Prepared for Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT. 22 pp.
- Western Technology and Eng., Inc., 1991, Wildlife resources of the Little Rocky Mountains Environmental Study Area. March 1991. In Application for Amendment to Operating Permit No. 00096, Zortman Mining, Inc., Phillips County, Montana. Vol. 3. Jan. 3, 1995.
- Western Technology and Eng., Inc., Helena, MT., 1996, Terrestrial Wildlife Reconnaissance: Stillwater Mining Company Hertzler Tailings Facility and Tailings Line, 1996. October 1996. In Stillwater Mining Co. Mine Waste Management Plan Amendment to Permit #00118 Supplemental Baseline Reports: Terrestrial Wildlife, Vegetation, Soils, Land Application Disposal, Waters of the U.S. January 1997.
- Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT. For Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT., 1985, Reconnaissance of terrestrial wildlife resources in the vicinity of the Willow Creek Mine, September, 1985. October 31, 1985. In Operating Permit Amendment Application and Reclamation Plan for Willow Creek Talc, Inc. Proposed Operation Near Alder, Madison County, Montana (Willow Creek Talc, Inc., Alder, MT.)
- Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT., 1989, Reconnaissance of terrestrial wildlife resources in the Basin Creek Mine Amendment 5 vicinity, 1988-1989. November 1989. In Basin Creek Mine Permit Amendment No. 5 - Paupers Pit Southwest, Block B and leach Pad No. 3. Basin Creek Mining, Inc. (Pegasus Gold Corp.). For Montana Dept. of State Lands and USFS Deer Lodge NF.
- Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT., 1989, Reconnaissance of the wildlife resources in the vicinity of the Kendall Venture Mine. January 1989. In Kendall Venture North Moccasin Project: Amendment to Operating Permit 00122, Fergus County, Montana. Vol. 2, App. A, Feb., 1989.
- Yonge, S.R. 2001. The ecology of grizzly bears and black bears in the Cooke City, Montana area. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 90 p.
- Zackheim, K. 1973. Exhibit H: Wildlife Study. In Ash Grove Cement Co. files.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Mammals"