Yellow-rumped Warbler - Setophaga coronata
A large warbler, averaging 14 cm long and 12 to 13 g. There are two well-marked subspecies groups - Myrtle Warbler (Dendroica coronata coronata
) and Audubon's Warbler (Dendroica coronata auduboni
). All plumages and subspecies possess the yellow rump that gives the species its name. Myrtle Warbler: adult male in breeding plumage is gray above, with black streaks on back; yellow crown-patch; black cheeks; white throat; and black breast, with yellow patches on sides. Distinct face pattern of black auriculars bordered by white supraloral spot, white postocular stripe, and white along lower rear portion of ear-coverts. Wings and tail black, with white wing-bars and white tail-spots. Adult female in Alternate plumage similar, but brown above and streaked below; auriculars brown or gray instead of black. In all Basic plumages, retains overall plumage pattern, including yellow areas and wing and tail marking, but body plumage is brown or brownish gray above and whitish below and black patches on ear-coverts and breast are lacking. Audubon's Warbler is similar but differs in having yellow throat, relatively plain face lacking postocular stripe, cheeks gray to blackish not contrasting with crown, more tail-feathers with white spots, white in wing usually more extensive. Head and back of adult Alternate-plumaged male varies from gray to completely black. Adults are easily distinguished from adults of other species that have yellow or yellowish rumps by having white and black versus yellow underparts (Hunt and Flaspohler 1998).
For a comprehensive review of the conservation status, habitat use, and ecology of this and other Montana bird species, please see Marks et al. 2016, Birds of Montana.
Western Hemisphere Range
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(direct evidence "B")
(indirect evidence "b")
No evidence of Breeding
(regular observations "W")
(at least one obs. "w")
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Bozeman migration (auduboni): May 7 to June 10 and August 25 to October 15
Statewide migration (coronata): April 22 to May 21 and September 14 to October 13.
Breeding range: predominantly mature coniferous and mixed coniferous-deciduous habitats. Migration: variety of habitats, although generally less common in forest interiors. In deserts of southwestern U.S., avoids arid lowland habitats and tends to occur at higher elevations in fall than in spring. Winter range: open areas, including second growth, edges, agricultural and residential areas, dunes, marshes, and shrublands; also a variety of relatively open forest types (Hunt and Flaspohler 1998).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: mtnhp.org/requests
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
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- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
During breeding season, mostly insects (adults and larvae) and other small invertebrates. On migration and in winter, insects and fruit, sometimes exclusively fruit, and some nectar (Hunt and Flaspohler 1998).
Territory sizes for auduboni are 3.8 to 5.8 acres in Douglas-fir or lodgepole forests in western MT.
Nests typically on horizontal branch of hemlock, spruce, cedar, pine or tamarack. Female builds the cup shaped nest. Eggs are oval in shape. Egg color white to creamy white and marked. Clutch sized typically 4 to 5 eggs. Statewide, nesting is from late May to mid-July. Near Fortine, earliest date for flying young is July 2.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Hunt, P. D., and D. J. Flaspohler. 1998. Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata). In The birds of North America, No. 376 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and American Ornithologists’ Union.
- Marks, J.S., P. Hendricks, and D. Casey. 2016. Birds of Montana. Arrington, VA. Buteo Books. 659 pages.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
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