Search Field Guide
Advanced Search
MT Gov Logo
Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Japanese Brome - Bromus japonicus

Non-native Species

Global Rank: GNR
State Rank: SNA

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 0

External Links






 
General Description
Annual bunchgrass. Stems 20–60 cm. Leaves: blades 2–4 mm wide. Inflorescence an open panicle 10–20 cm long, the branches drooping to one side and at least some flexuous, each branch bearing several spikelets. Spikelets 8–13 mm long, with 5 to 11 florets. Lemmas broad; awn 2–6 mm long, straight to curved downward at maturity (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

See video on Identifying Invasive Annual Grasses in Montana.

Diagnostic Characteristics
Montana has 7 species of annual Bromes (Bromus), and only 3 are described below. A technical manual is recommended, such as Manual of Montana Vascular Plants (Lesica et al. 2012).

Japanese BromeBromus japonica, exotic and undesirable
* Plants tend to grow in more moist sites than does Cheatgrass (but can co-occur).
* Awns are straight or curved outward, less than 10 mm long.
* Glumes and awns not usually hairy
* 1st Glume is 3-to 5-veined.
* Spikelets often several from branch ends.

Ripgut Brome - Bromus diandrus, exotic and undesirable
* Lemmas taper into 2 narrow teeth: bodies are 20-35 mm long and awns are greater than 10 mm.
* 1st Glume is 1-veined.

CheatgrassBromus tectorum, exotic, undesirable, and State-Regulated
* Seedlings have very hairy blades and sheaths.
* Awns are reddish-purple at maturity and easily stick to clothing and fur, and can get into the nostrils and eyes of animals.
* Glumes and lemmas are usually hairy. 1st Glume is 1-veined.
* Lemmas taper into 2 narrow teeth: bodies are 9-12 mm long and awns are greater than 10 mm.

Species Range
Montana Range

Non-native
 


Range Comments
Introduced throughout nearly all of North America (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 746

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Roadsides, pastures, overgrazed sagebrush steppe, sites with strongly fluctuating water levels, and other open disturbed dry sites (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Management

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxviii + 911 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Anderson, N.L. 1951. Field studies on the biology of range grasshoppers of southeastern Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 96 p.
    • Anderson, N.L. 1962. Grasshopper-vegetation relationships on Montana grasslands. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 73 p.
    • Bess, J.A. 1997. The leafhopper species assemblages associated with native and replanted grasslands in southwest Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 94 p.
    • Brey, C.W. 1998. Epidemiology of wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella K.) and wheat streak mosaic virus on feral grass species and effect of glyphosate on wheat curl mite dispersal. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 136 p.
    • Eng, R.L. 1952. A two-summer study of the effects on bird populations of chlordane bait and aldrin spray as used for grasshopper control. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 27 p.
    • Fritzen, D.E. 1995. Ecology and behavior of Mule Deer on the Rosebud Coal Mine, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 143 p.
    • Haile, K.F. 2011. Fuel load and heat effects on Northern mixed prairie and four prominent rangeland graminoids. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 71 p.
    • Hendricks, P., G.M. Kudray, S. Lenard, and B.A. Maxell. 2007. A Multi-Scale Analysis Linking Prairie Breeding Birds to Site and Landscape Factors Including USGS GAP Data. Helena, Mont: Montana Natural Heritage Program.
    • Ito, D. 2011. Evaluation of susceptibility to wheat streak mosaic virus among small grains and alternative hosts in the great plains. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 93 p.
    • Johnson, J.D. 2004. Restoring native species to crested wheatgrass dominated rangelands. M.Sc.Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 58 p.
    • Jorgensen, H.E. 1970. Ecological aspects of the life history of Agropyron smithii Rydb. in Central Montana, with related effects of selective herbicide treatments of rangeland. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 118 p.
    • Mussgnug, G.L. 1972. The structure and performance of an adult population of Aulocara elliotti (Thomas) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) near Billings, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 97 p.
    • Quire, R.L. 2013. The sagebrush steppe of Montana and southeastern Idaho shows evidence of high native plant diversity, stability, and resistance to the detrimental effects of nonnative plant species. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 124 p.
    • Rauscher, R.L. 1995. Deer use of irrigated alfalfa along the Yellowstone River, Custer County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 50 p.
    • Scow, K.L. 1981. Ecological distribution of small mammals at Sarpy Creek, Montana, with special consideration of the Deer Mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 73 p.
    • Seipel, T.F. 2006. Plant species diversity in the sagebrush steppe of Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 87 p.
    • Tschache, O.P. 1970. Effects of ecological changes induced by various sagebrush control techniques on small mammal populations. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 51 p.
    • Tuinstra, K. E. 1967. Vegetation of the floodplains and first terraces of Rock Creek near Red Lodge, Montana. Ph.D dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman 110 pp.
    • Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308.
    • Wiman, N.G. 2001. Dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) infested plant communities influenced by flea beetles in the Aphthona complex (Colepotera: Chrysomelidae). M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 148 p.
  • Web Search Engines for Articles on "Japanese Brome"
Login Logout
Citation for data on this website:
Japanese Brome — Bromus japonicus.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from