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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Canada Violet - Viola canadensis

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4
(see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 4

External Links

State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Relatively common in Montana and scattered across the state in appropriate habitat.
General Description
Plants glabrous to puberulent, stoloniferous. Stems 8–40 cm. Leaf blades 5–8 cm long, broadly cordate to reniform with crenulate margins and pointed tips; stipules attenuate-lanceolate, 8–16 mm long. Flowers white, fading to blue, 10–15 mm long; petals yellow at the base, the lower with purple lines, lateral pair bearded; spur ca. 2 mm long; style with sparse long hairs. Capsule 5–8 mm long (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range


Range Comments
AK to NS south to AZ, NM, TN and SC (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 410

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Moist to wet forest, thickets, often with deciduous trees along streams, wetlands; plains, valleys, montane (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Jones, W. W. 1901. Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College. 78 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Simanonok, M. 2018. Plant-pollinator network assembly after wildfire. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 123 p.
    • Tuinstra, K. E. 1967. Vegetation of the floodplains and first terraces of Rock Creek near Red Lodge, Montana. Ph.D dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman 110 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Canada Violet — Viola canadensis.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from