Annual Indian Paintbrush - Castilleja exilis
Castilleja minor ssp. minor
State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Annual Indian Paintbrush is known from a half dozen counties in southwest Montana with the majority of documented locations on private lands. Many areas of suitable habitat have been converted to agricultural uses and/or are used for livestock grazing. Additionally, populations are susceptible to hydrologic changes and may negatively impacted by invasive weeds.
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Annual Indian Paintbrush (Castilleja exilis) Conservation Status Review
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Annual Indian Paintbrush is an annual with erect, unbranched stems that are 3-8 dm high. The alternate, narrowly lance-shaped leaves, 3-8 cm long, have entire margins. Foliage is glandular-hairy. The stalkless flowers arise from the axils of the reduced upper leaves (bracts) in a spike-like inflorescence at the top of the stem. The upper bracts have red tips. The yellowish, tubular corolla, 15-25 mm long, tapers to a galea above that surpasses the 3 small lobes below. The tubular calyx, 15-20 mm long, almost completely contains the corolla and is cleft into 4 pointed lobes. The fruit is a capsule with many tiny seeds.
Flowering in July-August.
This is our only annual Castilleja, also distinguished in the lack of lobes on the leaves and bracts. It can be distinguished from annual Orthocarpus and Cordylanthus by the galea that is appreciably longer than the lower corolla lip.
WA to MT south to CA, AZ and NM (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Moist alkaline meadows in the valley zone.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.