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Montana Field Guides

Annual Indian Paintbrush - Castilleja exilis
Other Names:  Castilleja minor ssp. minor

Species of Concern
Native Species

Global Rank: G5T5
State Rank: S2
(see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank: 2
C-value: 6

External Links






State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Annual Indian Paintbrush is known from a half dozen counties in southwest Montana with the majority of documented locations on private lands. Many areas of suitable habitat have been converted to agricultural uses and/or are used for livestock grazing. Additionally, populations are susceptible to hydrologic changes and may negatively impacted by invasive weeds.
 
General Description
Annual Indian Paintbrush is an annual with erect, unbranched stems that are 3-8 dm high. The alternate, narrowly lance-shaped leaves, 3-8 cm long, have entire margins. Foliage is glandular-hairy. The stalkless flowers arise from the axils of the reduced upper leaves (bracts) in a spike-like inflorescence at the top of the stem. The upper bracts have red tips. The yellowish, tubular corolla, 15-25 mm long, tapers to a galea above that surpasses the 3 small lobes below. The tubular calyx, 15-20 mm long, almost completely contains the corolla and is cleft into 4 pointed lobes. The fruit is a capsule with many tiny seeds.

Phenology
Flowering in July-August.

Diagnostic Characteristics
This is our only annual Castilleja, also distinguished in the lack of lobes on the leaves and bracts. It can be distinguished from annual Orthocarpus and Cordylanthus by the galea that is appreciably longer than the lower corolla lip.

Species Range
Montana Range

Year-round
 


Range Comments
WA to MT south to CA, AZ and NM (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 59

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Moist alkaline meadows in the valley zone.

Ecological Systems Associated with this Species

Ecology
POLLINATORS
The following animal species have been reported as pollinators of this plant species or its genus where their geographic ranges overlap: Bombus appositus, Bombus bifarius, Bombus fervidus, Bombus flavifrons, Bombus melanopygus, Bombus sylvicola, Bombus occidentalis, and Bombus kirbiellus (Macior 1974, Thorp et al. 1983, Bauer 1983, Mayer et al. 2000, Wilson et al. 2010, Pyke et al. 2012, Koch et al. 2012, Miller-Struttmann and Galen 2014, Williams et al. 2014).

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Bauer, P.J. 1983. Bumblebee pollination relationships on the Beartooth Plateau tundra of Southern Montana. American Journal of Botany. 70(1): 134-144.
    • Koch, J., J. Strange, and P. Williams. 2012. Bumble bees of the western United States. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, Pollinator Partnership. 143 p.
    • Macior, L.M. 1974. Pollination ecology of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Melanderia 15: 1-59.
    • Mayer, D.F., E.R. Miliczky, B.F. Finnigan, and C.A. Johnson. 2000. The bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of southeastern Washington. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 97: 25-31.
    • Miller-Struttmann, N.E. and C. Galen. 2014. High-altitude multi-taskers: bumble bee food plant use broadens along an altitudinal productivity gradient. Oecologia 176:1033-1045.
    • Pyke, G.H., D.W. Inouye, and J.D. Thomson. 2012. Local geographic distributions of bumble bees near Crested Butte, Colorado: competition and community structure revisited. Environmental Entomology 41(6): 1332-1349.
    • Thorp, R.W., D.S. Horning, and L.L. Dunning. 1983. Bumble bees and cuckoo bumble bees of California (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 23:1-79.
    • Williams, P., R. Thorp, L. Richardson, and S. Colla. 2014. Bumble Bees of North America. Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press.
    • Wilson, J.S., L.E. Wilson, L.D. Loftis, and T. Griswold. 2010. The montane bee fauna of north central Washington, USA, with floral associations. Western North American Naturalist 70(2): 198-207.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
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Citation for data on this website:
Annual Indian Paintbrush — Castilleja exilis.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from