Coville Indian Paintbrush - Castilleja covilleana
State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
This species is known in Montana, primarily from the West Fork of the Bitterroot River on the Bitterroot National Forest. 5 occurrences are known from historical collections or have unknown status. A few occurrences contain minor amounts of spotted knapweed and others occur in habitats that are susceptible to invasion by knapweed and other invasive species. Timber harvest activities may also pose a threat to some populations.
- Details on Status Ranking and Review
Score1-2 - Small to Moderate. Population size is imprecisely known but is believed to be >2,000 individuals and <100,000 individuals.
Score2 - Regional or State Endemic or Small Montana Range: Generally restricted to an area <100,000 sq. miles (equivalent to 2/3 the size of Montana or less) or Montana contributes 50% or more of the species’ range or populations OR limited to 2-3 Sub-basins in Montana.
Area of Occupancy
Score1 - Moderate: Generally occurring in 11-25 Subwatersheds (6th Code HUC’s).
Score1 - Moderate: Species is restricted to a specific habitat that is more widely distributed or to several restricted habitats and is typically dependent upon relatively unaltered, good-quality habitat (C Values of 5-7).
Score0-1 - Stable to Minor Declines:
CommentTrends unknown, though populations are likely stable or experiencing only minor declines.
Score1-2 - Medium to High.
Commentinvasive weeds are impacting some of the species' habitat.
Score1 - Moderate Vulnerability: Specific biological attributes, unusual life history characteristics or limited reproductive potential makes the species susceptible to extirpation from stochastic events or other adverse impacts to its habitat and slow to recover.
Raw Conservation Status Score
7 to 10 total points scored out of a possible 19.
Coville Indian Paintbrush is a perennial with clusters of several unbranched, erect or ascending stems, which can be up to 30 cm tall. All leaves but the lowermost are deeply divided into 3-7 spreading, linear lobes, and are alternate on the stem. The herbage is covered with long, soft hairs. The inflorescence is usually bright red or scarlet, but may be orangish-yellow; it is short and compact at first, but elongates greatly at maturity. The colored flower bracts are deeply 5-7 parted and at least as long as the flowers. The corolla is 20-35 mm long, and the hooded upper lip is 1/2-2/3 the length of the tubular portion. The calyx is 15-25 mm long and more deeply divided above than below.
Flowering late June-early August.
This species can be distinguished from other red paintbrushes in its range by the covering of long, soft hairs (rather than stiff and straight), and by the middle leaf segments that are almost as narrow as the lateral segments.
Central ID and adjacent southwest MT. Regional endemic.
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Stony soil of slopes and summits in the montane and subalpine zones.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.