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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Crack Willow - Salix fragilis
Other Names:  Hybrid White Willow, Salix x rubens

Exotic Species (not native to Montana)

Global Rank: GNRQ
State Rank: SNA

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 0

External Links






 
General Description
Tree or large shrub to 25 m. Twigs tan, pubescent. Leaf blades 3–10 cm long, narrowly lanceolate with serrate margins, glabrous to sparsely hairy, glaucous below. Female catkins 2–8 cm long, emerging with the leaves on leafy branchlets 1–3 cm long; scales pale, long-hairy, deciduous. Capsules 3–5 mm long, glabrous; stipes 0.5–1 mm long; styles ca. 0.5 mm long (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Diagnostic Characteristics
The identity of our common, naturalized tree willow has been the source of taxonomic and nomenclatural confusion. Most, if not all of our specimens may be hybrids between Salix fragilis and Salix alba or Salix alba and Salix euxina. The name Salix x rubens is sometimes applied to these hybrids (Dorn 2010, Argus 2010).

Species Range
Unknown/Undetermined
 


Range Comments
Introduced to much of temperate N. America; native to Eurasia and cultivated as an ornamental or for wildlife habitat (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 4

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Along rivers, streams, around ponds, lakes, wetlands, roads; plains, valleys (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Argus, G. 2010. Salix. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 16+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 7.
    • Dorn, R.D. 2010. The genus Salix in North America north of Mexico. 59 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Crack Willow — Salix fragilis.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from