Common Sagebrush Lizard - Sceloporus graciosus
FWP Conservation Tier
The body of the Common Sagebrush Lizard is small and narrow. The back is covered with small spiny, keeled scales, and usually has a pale dorsolateral stripe on each side; scales on the rear of the thigh are very small and often granular. Dorsal coloration is brown, olive or gray with a bluish or greenish tinge. Ventral surfaces of females are white or yellow; males have blue lateral abdominal patches and blue mottling on the throat. Maximum snout-vent length (SVL) is about 6.5 centimeters; maximum total length is about 15 centimeters, with the tail length about 1.5 times the snout-vent length. Mature males have enlarged postanal scales with two enlarged hemipenal swellings on the underside at the base of the tail. Gravid females may develop a reddish-orange color along the sides. Hatchlings are 2.3 to 2.8 centimeters SVL; eggs are white and leathery, and 12 to 14 millimeters in length by 6 to 8 millimeters in breadth.
The Common Sagebrush Lizard lacks the broad flattened body and the fringe of prominent spines on each side of the body that is present in the Greater Short-horned Lizard, the only other Montana lizard with which it overlaps in range. The Northern Alligator Lizard has a prominent skin fold on the side of the body; the Western Skink has smooth and shiny rounded scales.
Western Hemisphere Range
Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
No information is currently available regarding Common Sagebrush Lizard migration patterns in Montana.
Information gathered outside the state indicates that Common Sagebrush Lizards probably move moderate distances of a few hundred meters, but dispersal distances are not well documented and home range size is small (Burkholder and Tanner 1974, Hammerson 1999).
Habitat use in Montana has not been the subject of detailed studies. However, occupied habitats appear similar to other parts of the range (P. Hendricks personal observation). This species occurs in sage-steppe habitats, sometimes in the presence of sedimentary rock outcrops (limestone and sandstone), and in areas with open stands of limber pine and Utah juniper (Hendricks and Hendricks 2002) or ponderosa pine. In many places, open bare ground is abundant, grass cover is less than 10%, and height of shrub cover may be as low as 0.25 meters.
In Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming it is found at higher elevations in geothermal areas (Koch and Peterson 1995). Favored areas tend to have a high percentage of open bare ground and a component of low to tall bushes, such as sagebrush and rabbitbrush (Stebbins 1985, Green et al. 2001). Although a ground dweller, this lizard will perch up to 1 to 2 meters above ground in low shrubs and trees (Hammerson 1999). It uses rodent burrows, shrubs, logs, and rocks for cover.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at firstname.lastname@example.org
or (406) 444-3655.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. Special Publication No. 12. Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists. 278 p.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
This species is an invertivore; nine orders of insects (ants, beetles, and moths the most abundant), spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites have been reported in the diet (Hammerson 1999). Adults sometimes eat hatchling lizards.
Common Sagebrush Lizards are active during the day in the warmer hours from early May through mid-September in Yellowstone National Park (Koch and Peterson 1995), but emerging in March or April and remaining active into October in other parts of the range (Nussbaum et al. 1983, Hammerson 1999). Timing of spring emergence has not been determined for Montana populations, but numerous animals of all size classes have been observed in the last week of September in southern Carbon County (Hendricks 1999).
In southern Utah and west-central California, the annual survival rate averaged roughly 50 to 60% in adults, but less than 30% in juveniles and eggs (Tinkle et al. 1993). The southern Utah population appeared to be substantially resource limited. Home range size averaged about 400 to 600 square meters in Utah. Areas experimentally depopulated of this species were quickly recolonized from surrounding areas (M'Closkey et al. 1997).
Use of rodent burrows for overnight refuge, escape, and winter hibernation has been documented. In southeastern Idaho, activity was determined to be unimodal with a peak at 1100 to 1500 hours (Guyer 1978). Preferred body temperature was 30.9 C. in Yellowstone National Park (Mueller 1969).
The Common Sagebrush Lizard is probably food for a wide variety of reptiles, birds, and mammals, but documented predators are surprisingly few. Predators include Striped Whipsnake (Masticophis taeniatus), Night Snake (Hypsiglena torguata), Desert Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus bicinctores), Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus), and a variety of birds including American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) (Knowlton and Stanford 1942, Tinkle et al. 1993, Hammerson 1999). In Montana the Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus) is the only predator so far reported (Hendricks and Hendricks 2002).
There is essentially no information about the reproductive biology of this species in Montana. Juveniles (2.8 centimeters snout-vent length, 5.8 centimeters total length) have been collected in southern Carbon County in early September (P. Hendricks personal observation).
In southern Utah, reproduction occurred between mid-May and early July (Tinkle et al. 1993). Eggs are laid in June to July in Colorado, and May to July in west-central California. Extremes in clutch size are 1 and 8 eggs, but throughout the range clutch size averages between 3 and 5 eggs (Tinkle et al. 1993). Eggs hatch in 45 to 75 days (beginning in early to mid-August in Colorado and Utah, mid- to late August in west-central California). In Colorado and Utah, most adult females produce 2 clutches annually. Sexual maturity is attained in the first (south) or second (north) year (10 to 11 months in west-central California). In southern Utah, most females produce their first clutch at an age of about 22 to 24 months (some matured in about one year under uncommon optimal conditions). Males and females in southern Utah can live for at least six years (Tinkle et al. 1993).
This species is of concern in Montana due to few reports in recent years and its seemingly restricted and disjunct distribution within the state (Maxell et al. 2003), although it appears populations are robust in a few areas, such as the southern slopes of the Pryor Mountains (P. Hendricks personal observation).
Reduction of sagebrush cover to promote grass growth for livestock should be avoided or carefully assessed in areas occupied by this species. When clearing of sagebrush is deemed desirable, it should be conducted in a way to retain a mosaic of cover conditions, including the presence of moderately tall shrubs (sagebrush and rabbitbrush in particular) at a relatively fine scale to accommodate habitat requirements in home ranges that are fairly small (about 400 to 600 square meters).
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View WorldCat Record View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- [OEA] Olson Elliot and Associates Research. 1985. 1983-1984 Wildlife monitoring report for the CX Ranch project. Olson Elliot and Associates Research. Helena, MT.
- [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998a. Big Sky Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
- [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998b. Spring Creek Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
- [USFWS] US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; animal candidate review for listing as endangered or threatened species. Federal Register 59(219): 58982-59028.
- [VTNWI] VTN Wyoming Incorporated. No Date. Second year's analysis of terrestrial wildlife on proposed mine access and railroad routes in southern Montana and northern Wyoming, March 1979 - February 1980. VTN Wyoming Incorporated. Sheridan, WY. 62 p.
- Adolph, S.C. 1987. Physiological and behavioral ecology of the lizards Sceloporus occidentalis and Sceloporus graciosus. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington. Seattle. 121pp.
- Adolph, S.C. 1990. Influence of behavioral thermoregulation on microhabitat use by two Sceloporus lizards. Ecology 71(1): 315-327.
- Adolph, S.C. 1990. Perch height selection by juvenile Sceloporus lizards: Interspecific differences and relationship to habitat use. Journal of Herpetology 24(1): 69-75.
- Albers, Mark., 1995, Draft Biological Assessment: Tongue River Basin Project. May 1995. In Tongue River Basin Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix B. June 1995.
- Algard, G. A. 1968. Distribution, temperature and population studies of Sceloporus graciosus in Yellowstone National Park. M.S. thesis, Montana State University. Bozeman, MT. 34 pp.
- Allen, J.A. 1874. Notes on the natural history of portions of Dakota and Montana Territories, being the substance of a report to the Secretary of War on the collections made by the North Pacific Railroad Expedition of 1873, General D.S. Stanley, Commander. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 17: 33-85. Pages 68-70.
- Baxter, G. T. and M. D. Stone. 1985. Amphibians and reptiles of Wyoming. Second edition. Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Cheyenne, WY. 137 p.
- Beal, M.D. 1951. The occurrence and seasonal activity of vertebrates in the Norris and Gibbon Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park. M.S. Thesis. Utah State Agricultural College. Logan, Utah. 61 pp.
- Bergeron, D.J. 1978a. Terrestrial wildlife survey Divide Mine area, Montana 1977-1978. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
- Bergeron, D.J. 1978b. Terrestrial wildlife survey P-M Mine area, Montana 1977-1978. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
- Bergeron, D.J. 1979. Terrestrial wildlife survey, Coal Creek Mine area, Montana 1977-1978. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
- Brunson, R.B. 1955. Check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 15: 27-29.
- Burkholder, G.L. and W.W. Tanner. 1974. Life history and ecology of the Great Basin sagebrush swift, Sceloporus graciosus graciosus Baird and Girard, 1852. BYU Science Bulletin Biological Series 14(5): 1-42.
- Butts, T.W. 1997. Mountain Inc. wildlife monitoring Bull Mountains Mine No. 1, 1996. Western Technology and Engineering. Helena, MT.
- Carlson, J. (Coordinator, Montana Animal Species of Concern Committee). 2003. Montana Animal Species of Concern. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. In Press. 12p.
- Carpenter, C.C. 1978. Comparative display behavior in the genus Sceloporus (Iguanidae). Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions to Biology and Geology 18: 1-71.
- Censky, E. J. 1986. SCELOPORUS GRACIOSUS. Cat. Amer. Amph. and Rept. 386.1-4.
- Censky, E.J. 1986. Sceloporus graciosus Baird and Girard. sagebrush lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 386:1-4.
- Collins, J.T. 1991. A new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 22:42-43.
- Collins, J.T. 1997. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. Fourth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 25. 40 pp.
- Congdon, J.D. and D.W. Tinkle. 1982a. Energy expenditure in free-ranging sagebrush lizards (Sceloporus graciosus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 1412-1416.
- Cooper, J.G. 1869b. Notes on the fauna of the upper Missouri. American Naturalist 3: 294-299.
- Cope, E.D. 1872. Report on the recent reptiles and fishes of the survey, collected by Campbell Carrington and C.M. Dawes. pp. 467-469 In: F.V. Hayden, Preliminary report of the United States geological survey of Montana and portions of adjacent territories; being a fifth annual report of progress. 538 pp. 42nd Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document Number 326. Serial 1520.
- Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Report of the U.S. National Museum 1898: 153-1270.
- Crother, B.I. (ed.) 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 37:1-84.
- Cuellar, O. 1993. Lizard population ecology: a long term community study. Bulletin D’Ecologie 24(2-4): 109-149.
- Day, D., P.J. Farmer, and C.E. Farmer. 1989. Montco terrestrial wildlife monitoring report December, 1987 - July, 1989. Montco, Billings, MT, and Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
- Degenhardt, W. G., C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
- Degenhardt, W.G. and K.L. Jones. 1972. A new sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus, from New Mexico and Texas. Herpetologica 28:212-217.
- Deslippe, R.J. and R.T. M'Closkey. 1991. An experimental test of mate defense in an iguanid lizard (Sceloporus graciosus). Ecology 72(4): 1218-1224.
- Dood, A. R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 pp.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1976, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1976. Proj. 135-85-A. December 31, 1976.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1978. Proj. 195-85-A. April 6, 1979.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1979, including a special raptor research study. Proj. 216-85-A. March 1, 1980.
- Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1978, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife and wildlife habitat monitoring study. Proj. 190-85-A. December 31, 1978.
- Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1988, Wildlife monitoring report, 1987 field season, Big Sky Mine. March 1988. In Peabody Mining and Reclamation Plan Big Sky Mine Area B. Vol. 8, cont., Tab 10 - Wildlife Resources. Appendix 10-1, 1987 Annual Wildlife Report.
- Etheridge, R. 1964. The skeletal morphology and systematic relationships of sceloporine lizards. Copeia 1964(4): 610-631.
- Farmer, P. 1980. Terrestrial wildlife monitoring study, Pearl area, Montana June, 1978 - May, 1980. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
- Ferguson, G.W. 1971. Observations on the behavior and interactions of two sympatric Sceloporus in Utah. American Midland Naturalist 86: 190-196.
- Ferguson, G.W. and T. Brockman. 1980. Geographic differences of growth rate of Sceloporus lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae). Copeia 1980: 259-264.
- Fjell, Alan K., 1986, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1985 field season. March 1986.
- Fjell, Alan K., and Brian R. Mahan, compilers., 1984, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1983 field season. February 1984.
- Fjell, Alan K., and Brian R. Mahan., 1983, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1982 field season. May 1983.
- Fjell, Alan K., and Brian R. Mahan., 1985, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1984 field season. February 1985.
- Fjell, Alan K., and Brian R. Mahan., 1987, Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1986 field season. April 1987.
- Gates, M.T. 2005. Amphibian and reptile baseline survey: CX field study area. Report to Billings and Miles City Field Offices of Bureau of Land Management. Maxim Technologies, Billings, MT. 28pp + Appendices.
- Germaine, S.S. and H.L. Germaine. 2003. Lizard distributions and reproductive success in a ponderosa pine forest. Journal of Herpetology 37(4):645-652.
- Goldberg, S.R. and C.R. Bursey. 1989. Physaloptera retusa (Nematoda, Physalopteridae) in naturally infected sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus (Iguanidae). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(3): 425-429.
- Goldberg, S.R. and C.R. Bursey. 1991a. Duration of attachment by mites and ticks on the iguanid lizards Sceloporus graciosus and Uta stansburiana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 27(4): 719-722.
- Goldberg, S.R., C.R. Bursey, and C.T. McAllister. 1995. Gastrointestinal helminths of nine species of Sceloporus lizards (Phrynosomatidae) from Texas. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 62(2):188-196.
- Goldberg, S.R., C.R. Bursey, and R. Tawil. 1994. Gastrointestinal helminths of Sceloporus lizards (Phrynosomatidae) from Arizona. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 61(1): 73-83.
- Green, G.A., K.B. Livezey, and R.L. Morgan. 2001. Habitat selection by northern sagebrush lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus) in the Columbia Basin, Oregon. Northwestern Naturalist 82:111-115.
- Guyer, C. 1978. Comparative ecology of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporous graciosus). Unpublished Thesis, Idaho State University. 130 pp.
- Guyer, C. 1991. Orientation and homing behavior as a measure of affinity for the home range in two species of Iguanid lizards. Amphibia-Reptilia 12(4): 373-384.
- Guyer, C. and A.D. Linder. 1985a. Growth and population structure of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) in southeastern Idaho. Northwest Science 59(4): 294-303.
- Guyer, C. and A.D. Linder. 1985b. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) in southeastern Idaho (USA). Great Basin Naturalist 45(4): 607-614.
- Hammerson, G. A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. University Press of Colorado & Colorado Division of Wildlife. Denver, CO. 484 p.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Bureau of Land Management Miles City District, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 80 p.
- Hendricks, P. and J. D. Reichel. 1996. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland District, Custer National Forest: 1995. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 79 p.
- Hendricks, P. and L.N. Hendricks. 2002. Predatory attack by green-tailed towhee on sagebrush lizard. Northwestern Naturalist 83:57-59.
- Horstman, G. 1995. Sceloporus graciosus graciosus (northern sagebrush lizard). Herpetological Review 26(1): 45.
- Humphris, Michael., 1993, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1993 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 11, 1993.
- Humphris, Michael., 1994, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1994 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 1994.
- James, S.E. and R.T. M'Closkey. 2002. Patterns of microhabitat use in a sympatric lizard assemblage. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(12):2226-2234.
- James, S.E. and R.T. M'Closkey. 2003. Lizard microhabitat and fire fuel management. Biological Conservation 114(2):293-297.
- Jameson, E.W., Jr. 1974. Fat and breeding cycles in a montane population of Sceloporus graciosus. Journal of Herpetology 8(4): 311-322.
- Kerfoot, W.C. 1968. Geographic variability of the lizard, Sceloporus graciosus Baird and Girard, in the eastern part of its range. Copeia 1968: 139-152.
- Knowlton, G.F. 1953. Some insect food of Sceloporus g. graciosus. Herpetologica 9: 70.
- Knowlton, G.F. and J.S. Stanford. 1942. Reptiles eaten by birds. Copeia 1942: 186.
- Knox, S.C., C. Chambers, and S.S. Germaine. 2001. Habitat associations of the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus): potential responsess of an ectotherm to ponderosa pine forest rehabilitation. USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station Preoceedings RMRS-P 22:95-98.
- Koch, E. D. and C. R. Peterson. 1995. Amphibians and reptiles of Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT. 188 p.
- Koch, E.D. and C.R. Peterson. 1989. A preliminary survey of the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Yellowstone National Park. pp. 47-49. In: Rare, sensitive and threatened species of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, T.W. Clark, A.H. Harvey, R.D. Dorn, D.C. Genter, and C. Groves (eds.), Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative , Montana Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, and Mountain West Environmental Services. 153 p.
- Lemos-Espinal, J.A., G.R. Smith, and R.E. Ballinger. 1996. Covariation of egg size, clutch size, and offspring survivorship in the genus Sceloporus. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 32(2): 58-66.
- Lynch, J.D. 1985. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 13: 33-57.
- M'Closkey, R.T., S.J. Hecnar, D.R. Chalcraft, and J.E. Cotter. 1998. Size distributions and sex ratios of colonizing lizards. Oecologica (Berlin) 116(4):501-509.
- M'Closkey, R.T., S.J. Hecnar, D.R. Chalcraft, J.E. Cotter, J. Johnston, and R. Poulin. 1997. Colonization and saturation of habitats by lizards. Oikos 78:283-290.
- Marcellini, D. and J.P. Mackey. 1970. Habitat preferences of the lizards Sceloporus occcidentalis and S. graciosus . Herpetologica 26: 51-56.
- Martin, P.R. 1980a. Terrestrial wildlife habitat inventory in southeastern Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena MT. 114 p.
- Martin, P.R. 1980b. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas of Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 84 p.
- Martin, P.R., K. Dubois and H.B. Youmans. 1981. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas, Powder River resources area final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 288 p.
- Martins, E.P. 1991. Individual and sex differences in the use of the push-up display by the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus. Animal Behaviour 41(3): 403-416.
- Martins, E.P. 1993a. A comparative study of the evolution of Sceloporus pushup displays. American Naturalist 142: 994-1018.
- Martins, E.P. 1993b. Contextual use of the push-up display by the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus. Animal Behaviour 45(1): 25-36.
- Martins, E.P. 1994. Structural complexity in a lizard communication system: the Sceloporus graciosus "push-up" display. Copeia 1994(4): 944-955.
- Martins, E.P., A.N. Bissell, and K.K. Morgan. 1998. Population diffferences in a lizard communicative display: evidence for rapid change in structure and function. Animal Behaviour 56(5):1113-1119.
- Martins, E.P., T.J. Ord, and S.W. Davenport. 2005. Combining motions into complex displays: playbacks with a robotic lizard. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 58(4):351-360.
- Maxell, B. A., J. K. Werner, P. Hendricks and D. L. Flath. 2003. Herpetology in Montana: a history, status summary, checklists, dichotomous keys, accounts for native, potentially native, and exotic species, and indexed bibliography. Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Northwest Fauna Number 5. Olympia, WA. 135 p.
- Maxim Technologies, Inc., 2002, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 2002 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 2001 - November 30, 2002. Febr. 24, 2002.
- Morrison, M.L. and L.S. Hall. 1999. Habitat characteristics of reptiles in pinyon-juniper woodland. Great Basin Naturalist 59(3):288-291.
- Morrison, R.L. and L. Powell. 1988. New distributional records of lizards in Wyoming (USA). Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 16(0): 85-86.
- Morrison, R.L. and S.K. Frost-Mason. 1991. Ultrastructural analysis of iridophore organellogenesis in a lizard, Sceloporus graciosus (Reptilia: Phrynosomatidae). Journal Of Morphology 209(2): 229-239.
- Mueller, C. F., and R. E. Moore. 1969. Growth of the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus, in Yellowstone National Park. Herpetologica 25:35-38.
- Mueller, C.F. 1967. Temperature and energy characteristics of the sagebrush lizard in Yellowstone National Park. Ph.D. dissertation, Montana State University, Bozeman. 38 pp.
- Mueller, C.F. 1969. Temperature and energy characteristics of the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) in Yellowstone National Park. Copeia 1969:153-160.
- Mueller, C.F. 1970a. Temperature acclimation in two species of Sceloporus. Herpetologica 26(1): 83-85.
- Mueller, C.F. 1970b. Energy utilization in the lizards Sceloporus graciosus and Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Herpetology 4(3-4): 131-134.
- Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, Jr. and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press. Moscow, ID. 332 pp.
- Patla, D.A. 1998a. Amphibians and reptiles in the Old Faithful sewage treatment area. Report to Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park. 10 September, 1998. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Program, Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID. 7 p.
- Patla, D.A. and C.R. Peterson. 1996a. Amphibians and reptiles along the Grand Loop Highway in Yellowstone National Park: Tower Junction to Canyon Village. 24 February, 1996. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Program, Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID. 49 p.
- Peterson, C.R. and J.P. Shive. 2002. Herpetological survey of southcentral Idaho. Idaho Bureau of Land Management Technical Bulletin 02-3:1-97.
- Peterson, C.R., C.J. Askey, and D.A. Patla. 1993. Amphibians and reptiles along the Grand Loop and Fountain Freight Roads between Madison Junction and Biscuit Basin in Yellowstone National Park. 26 July, 1993. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Program, Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID. 45 p.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1995, Big Sky Mine 1994 wildlife monitoring studies. March 1995
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1996, Spring Creek Mine 1995 Wildlife Monitoring Studies. Spring Creek Coal Company 1995-1996 Mining Annual Report. Vol. I, App. I. May 1996.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1997, Spring Creek Mine 1996 Wildlife Monitoring Studies. February 1997.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1999, 1998 wildlife monitoring: Big Sky Mine. March 1999.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1999, Spring Creek Mine 1998 Wildlife Monitoring. March 1999.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 2000, Spring Creek Mine 1999 Wildlife Monitoring. March 2000.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 2000, Spring Creek Mine 2000 Wildlife Monitoring. March 2000.
- Punzo, F. 1982. Clutch and egg size in several species of lizards from the desert southwest. Journal of Herpetology 16(4):414-417.
- Rauscher, R.L. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on selected Montana Bureau of Reclamation impoundments. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Nongame Program. Bozeman, MT. 24 pp.
- Reed, K.M., P.D. Sudman, J.W. Sites, and I.F. Greenbaum. 1990. Synaptonemal complex analysis of sex chromosomes in two species of Sceloporus. Copeia 4: 1122-1129.
- Reichel, J. and D. Flath. 1995. Identification of Montana's amphibians and reptiles. Montana Outdoors 26(3):15-34.
- Reichel, J. D. 1995. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Sioux District of the Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 75 p.
- Roedel, M.D. and P. Hendricks. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on the Bureau of Land Management Lewistown District: 1995-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 53 p.
- Roedel, M.D. and P. Hendricks. 1998b. Amphibian and reptile inventory on the Headwaters and Dillon Resource Areas in conjunction with Red Rocks Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: 1996-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 46 p.
- Rose, B.R. 1976a. Dietary overlap of Sceloporus occidentalis and S. gracious. Copeia 1976: 818-820.
- Rose, B.R. 1976b. Habitat and prey selection of Sceloporus occidentalis and Sceloporus graciosus. Ecology 57: 531-541.
- Sears, M.W. 2005a. Goegraphic variation in the life history of the sagebrush lizard: the role of thermal constraints on activity. Oecologia (Berlin) 143(1):25-36.
- Sears, M.W. 2005b. Resting metabolic expenditure as a potential source of variation in growth rates of the sagebrush lizard. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 140(2):171-177.
- Sears, M.W. and M.J. Angilletta Jr. 2003. Life-history variation in the sagebrush lizard: phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation? Ecology 84(6):1624-1634.
- Sinervo, B. and S.C. Adolph. 1989. Thermal sensitivity of growth rate in hatchling Sceloporus lizards: Environmental, behavioral and genetic aspects. Oecologia 78(3): 411-419.
- Sinervo, B. and S.C. Adolph. 1994. Growth plasticity and thermal opportunity in Sceloporus lizards. Ecology 75(3): 776-790.
- Sites, J. W., Jr., J.W. Archie, C.J. Cole, V.O. Flores. 1992. A review of phylogenetic hypotheses for lizards of the genus (Phrynosomatidae): implications for ecological and evolutionary studies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (213): 1-110.
- Sites, J.W., Jr., C.A. Porter, and P. Thompson. 1987. Genetic structure and chromosomal evolution in the Sceloporus grammicus complex. National Geographic Research 3(3): 343-362.
- Sites, J.W., Jr., P. Thompson, and C.A. Porter. 1988. Cascading chromosomal speciation in lizards: a second look. Pacific Science 42(1-2): 89-104.
- Skinner, M.P. 1924. The Yellowstone Nature Book. A.C. McClurg Company, Chicago, IL. 221 p.
- Smith, H.M. 1991b. Three new records of lizards in Ouray County, Colorado. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 26(10): 223.
- Spring Creek Coal Company., 1992, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1992 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I.
- St. John, A. D. 2002. Reptiles of the northwest: California to Alaska, Rockies to the coast. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton, WA. 272 p.
- Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York. 533 p.
- Stebbins, R.C. 1948a. Additional observations on home ranges and longevity in the lizard Sceloporus graciosus. Copeia 1948:20-22.
- Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 336 pp.
- Stebbins, R.C. and H.B. Robinson. 1946. Further analysis of populations of the lizard Sceloporus g. graciosus. University of California (Berkeley) Publications in Zoology 48: 149-168.
- Thompson, L.S. 1984a. Biogeography of Montana: preliminary observations on major faunal and floristic distribution patterns. Abstract. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 43: 40-41.
- Thompson, P. and J.W. Sites, Jr. 1986a. Comparison of population structure in chromosomally polytypic and monotypic species of Sceloporus (Sauria: Iguanidae) in relation to chromosomally-mediated speciation. Evolution 40(2): 303-314.
- Thompson, P. and J.W. Sites, Jr. 1986b. Two aberrant karyotypes in the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus): Triploidy and a "supernumerary" oddity. Great Basin Naturalist 46(2): 224-227.
- Thunderbird Wildlife Consulting, Inc., Gillette, WY., 2002, 2001 wildlife monitoring: Big Sky Mine. March 2002.
- Timken, R. No Date. Amphibians and reptiles of the Beaverhead National Forest. Western Montana College, Dillon, MT. 16 p.
- Tinkle, D.W. 1973. A population analysis of the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus, in southern Utah. Copeia 1973: 284-296.
- Tinkle, D.W., A.E. Dunham, and J.D. Congdon. 1993. Life history and demographic variation in the lizard Sceloporus graciosus: a long-term study. Ecology 74(8): 2413-2429.
- Turner, F.B. 1951. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians of Yellowstone National Park with incidental notes. Yellowstone Nature Notes 25(3): 25-29.
- Turner, F.B. 1955. Reptiles and amphibians of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Interpretive Series No. 5. Yellowstone Library and Museum Association. Yellowstone National Park, WY. 40 p.
- Vitt, L.J., J.P. Caldwell, and D.B. Shepard. 2005. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the Billings Field Office Region, Montana. Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. 33 pp.
- Waage, B.C. 1998. Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine 1997 annual wildlife monitoring report December 1, 1996 to November 30, 1997 survey period. Western Energy Company, Colstrip, MT.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1991, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1990 Field Season. September 1991.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1992, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1991 Field Season. December 1992.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1993, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; 1993 Field Season. April 1993.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1995, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana:1994 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1993 - November 30, 1994. February 27, 1995.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1996, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1995 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1994 - November 30, 1995. February 28, 1996.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1998, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1997 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1996 - November 30, 1997 Survey Period. March 23, 1998.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1999, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1998 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1997 - November 30, 1998 Survey Period. February 24, 1999.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2000, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1999 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1998 - November 30, 1999. February 2000.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2001, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 2000 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1999 - November 30, 2000. March 30, 2001.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2002, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana. 2001 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 2000 - November 30, 2001. Febr. 26, 2002.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks and D.L. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Montana. Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT. 262 pp.
- Werschkul, D.F. 1982. Species-habitat relationships in an Oregon cold desert lizard community. Great Basin Naturalist 42(3): 380-384.
- Wiens, J.J. and T.W. Reeder. 1997. Phylogeny of the spiny lizards (Sceloporus) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Herpetological Monographs 11:1-101.
- Woodbury, M. and A.M. Woodbury. 1945. Life-history studies of the sagebrush lizard Sceloporus graciosus graciosus with special reference to cycles in reproduction. Herpetologica 2: 175-196.
- Yeager, D.C. 1926. Miscellaneous notes. Yellowstone Nature Notes 3(4): 7.