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General Description
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Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
  • Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
    How Associations Were Made
    We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
    1. Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
    2. Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
    3. Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
    4. Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
    Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.  In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.  However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if point observations were associated with that system.  High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.  The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.  If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at bmaxell@mt.gov or (406) 444-3655.

    Suggested Uses and Limitations
    Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.  These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.  Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.  Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.  Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).  Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.

    Literature Cited
    • Adams, R.A.  2003.  Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation.  Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  289 p.
    • Dobkin, D. S.  1992.  Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34.  Missoula, MT.
    • Foresman, K.R.  2001.  The wild mammals of Montana.  Special Publication No. 12.  Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists.  278 p.
    • Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998.  Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates.  Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.  1302 p.
    • Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young.  1999.  Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32.  72 p.
    • Maxell, B.A.  2000.  Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species.  Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1.  Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana.  161 p.
    • Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath.  2004.  Amphibians and reptiles of Montana.  Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    • Ashton, K.G. and K. L. Ashton. 1998. Phrynosoma douglasii (short-horned lizard). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 29(3):168-169.
    • Cope, E. D. 1879. A contribution to the zoology of Montana. American Naturalist 13(7): 432-441.
    • Dood, A. R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 pp.
    • Hammerson, G. A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. University Press of Colorado & Colorado Division of Wildlife. Denver, CO. 484 p.
    • Hendricks, P. 1999. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Bureau of Land Management Miles City District, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 80 p.
    • Laird, M. and R. Leech. 1980. Observations on the short-horned lizard in southeastern Alberta. Blue Jay 38(4): 214-218.
    • Maxell, B. A., J. K. Werner, P. Hendricks and D. L. Flath. 2003. Herpetology in Montana: a history, status summary, checklists, dichotomous keys, accounts for native, potentially native, and exotic species, and indexed bibliography. Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Northwest Fauna Number 5. Olympia, WA. 135 p.
    • Mosimann, J.E. and G.B. Rabb. 1952. The herpetology of Tiber Reservoir Area, Montana. Copeia(1): 23-27.
    • Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, Jr. and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press. Moscow, ID. 332 pp.
    • Powell, G.L. and A.P. Russell. 1998. The status of short-horned lizards (Phrynosoma douglasi) and (P. hernandezi) in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 112(1):1-16.
    • Russell, A. P. and A. M. Bauer. 1993. The amphibians and reptiles of Alberta. University of Calgary Press. Calgary, Alberta. 264 p.
    • St. John, A. D. 2002. Reptiles of the northwest: California to Alaska, Rockies to the coast. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton, WA. 272 p.
    • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York. 533 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • [OEA] Olson Elliot and Associates Research. 1985. 1983-1984 Wildlife monitoring report for the CX Ranch project. Olson Elliot and Associates Research. Helena, MT.
    • [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998b. Spring Creek Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
    • [USFWS] US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; animal candidate review for listing as endangered or threatened species. Federal Register 59(219): 58982-59028.
    • [VTNWI] VTN Wyoming Incorporated. No Date. Second year's analysis of terrestrial wildlife on proposed mine access and railroad routes in southern Montana and northern Wyoming, March 1979 - February 1980. VTN Wyoming Incorporated. Sheridan, WY. 62 p.
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    • Allen, J.A. 1874. Notes on the natural history of portions of Dakota and Montana Territories, being the substance of a report to the Secretary of War on the collections made by the North Pacific Railroad Expedition of 1873, General D.S. Stanley, Commander. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 17: 33-85. Pages 68-70.
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    • Benson, K.R. 1978. Herpetology of the Lewis and Clark expedition 1804-1806. Herpetological Review 9(3): 87-91.
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    • Burroughs, R.D. 1961. The natural history of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Michigan State University Press. 340 pp.
    • Carlson, J. (Coordinator, Montana Animal Species of Concern Committee). 2003. Montana Animal Species of Concern. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. In Press. 12p.
    • Chandler, J.D. 1965. Horned toad record. The Blue Jay 23(2): 92.
    • Cooper, J.G. 1860. Report upon the reptiles collected on the survey. In: Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Volume 12, Book 2, Part 3, Number 4. pp. 292-306, +14 pls. 36th Congress, 1st session, House Executive Document Number 56. Serial 1055.
    • Cooper, J.G. 1869a. The fauna of Montana territory. American Naturalist 3: 124-127.
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    • Cooper, S.V., C. Jean, and P. Hendricks. 2001. Biological survey of a prairie landscape in Montana’s glaciated plains. Report to the Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 24 pp. plus appendices.
    • Cope, E.D. 1872. Report on the recent reptiles and fishes of the survey, collected by Campbell Carrington and C.M. Dawes. pp. 467-469 In: F.V. Hayden, Preliminary report of the United States geological survey of Montana and portions of adjacent territories; being a fifth annual report of progress. 538 pp. 42nd Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document Number 326. Serial 1520.
    • Cope, E.D. 1875. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U.S. National Museum. U.S. Natioanl Museum Bulletin 1: 1-104.
    • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Report of the U.S. National Museum 1898: 153-1270.
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    • Coues, E. and H. Yarrow. 1878. Notes on the herpetology of Dakota and Montana. Bulletin of the U.S. Geological Geographic Survey of the Territories 4: 259-291.
    • Crother, B.I. (ed.) 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 37:1-84.
    • Dammann, J. 1949. Birth of eighteen young Phrynosoma douglassi Hernandes. Herpetologica 5: 144.
    • Dumas, P. C. 1964. Species-pair allopatry in the genera Rana and Phrynosoma. Ecology 45: 178-181.
    • Farmer, P. 1980. Terrestrial wildlife monitoring study, Pearl area, Montana June, 1978 - May, 1980. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
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    • Goldberg, S.R. 1971. Reproduction in the short-horned lizard Phrynosoma douglassi in Arizona. Herpetologica 27(3): 311-314.
    • Guyer, C. 2006. Phrynosoma douglasii (pigmy short-horned lizard) copulatory position. Herpetological Review 37(1):91-92.
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    • Guyer, C. and A.D. Linder. 1985b. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) in southeastern Idaho (USA). Great Basin Naturalist 45(4): 607-614.
    • Hammerson, G.A. and H.M. Smith. 1991. The correct spelling of the name of the short-horned lizard of North America. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 27(3): 121-127.
    • Hendricks, P. and J. D. Reichel. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on Montana refuges: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 19 p.
    • Hornbeck, G.E. and J.E. Green. 1990. A reconnaissance field survey of the eastern short-horned lizard and its habitat in Samedan Manyberries 9-13-4-5 W4M. Delta Environmental Management Group Ltd. Calgary, AB. 27pp.
    • Hornbeck, G.E. and J.E. Green. 1991. Year two of a reconnaissance field survey of the eastern short-horned lizard and its habitat in Samedan Manyberries 9-13-4-5 W4M. Delta Environmental Management Group Ltd. Calgary, AB. 17pp.
    • Humphris, Michael., 1993, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1993 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 11, 1993.
    • Humphris, Michael., 1994, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1994 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 1994.
    • James J.D., A.P. Russell, and G.L. Powell. 1997. Status of the eastern short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre) in Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Wildlife Management Divison, Wildlife Status Report No. 5, Edmonton, AB. 1-20.
    • Linder, A.D. 1989. Short-horned lizard Phrynosoma douglassi. Rare, sensitive, and threatened species of the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Tim W. Clark, Ann H. Harvey, Robert D. Dorn, David L. Genter, and Craig Groves, editors. pp. 50-51.
    • Martin, P.R. 1980a. Terrestrial wildlife habitat inventory in southeastern Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena MT. 114 p.
    • Martin, P.R. 1980b. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas of Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 84 p.
    • Martin, P.R., K. Dubois and H.B. Youmans. 1981. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas, Powder River resources area final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 288 p.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1979. Wibaux-Beach wildlife baseline study - nongame species. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 93 p.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1981. Broadus-Pumpkin Creek baseline inventory - wildlife. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 83 p.
    • McEneaney, T. and J. Jensen. 1974. The reptiles and amphibians of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range - 1974. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge. Lewistown, MT. 3 p.
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    • Moll, E.O. 2004. Patronyms of the pioneer west. IX. Phrynosoma hernandesi (Girard, 1858) greater short-horned lizard. Sonoran Herpetologist 17(6):58-61.
    • Montanucci, R.R. 1979. Notes on systematics of horned lizards allied to Phrynosoma orbiculare (lacertilia: iguanidae). Herpetologica 35(2): 116-124.
    • Montanucci, R.R. 1981. Habitat separation between Phrynosoma douglassi and P. orbiculare (lacertilia: iguanidae) in Mexico. Copeia 1981(1): 147-153.
    • Montanucci, R.R. 1984. Breeding, captive care and longevity of the short-horned lizard Phrynosoma douglassi. International Zoological Yearbook 23: 148-156.
    • Montanucci, R.R. and B.E. Baur. 1982. Mating and courtship-related behaviors of the short-horned lizard, Phrynosoma douglassi. Copeia 1982(4): 971-974.
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    • Nero, R.W. 1957. Records of the horned toad in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 15: 119-120.
    • New, E.R. 1991. Drilling in short-horned lizard country. Abstract presented at the CADE/CAODC Spring Drilling Conference, April 10-12, 1991. CADE/CAODC Conference Publications, Calgary, AB.
    • Pack, H.J. 1918. Some habits of the pygmy horned lizard. Copeia 1918(63): 91-92.
    • Phillips, J.A. and H.J. Harlow. 1981. Elevation of upper voluntary temperatures after shielding the parietal eye of horned lizards (Phrynosoma douglassi). Herpetologica 37(4):199-205.
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    • Powell, G.L. 1982. The eastern short-horned lizard in Alberta: basic field ecology of northern marginal populations. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
    • Powell, G.L. and A.P. Russell. 1984. The diet of the eastern short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre) in Alberta and its relationship to sexual size dimorphism. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62(3): 428-440.
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    • Powell, G.L. and A.P. Russell. 1991b. Parturition and clutch characteristics of short-horned lizards (Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre) from Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69(11): 2759-2764.
    • Powell, G.L. and A.P. Russell. 1992a. A preliminary survey of the distribution and abundance of the eastern short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre) in Alberta. A report submitted to the Recreation, Parks, and Wildlife Foundation, Edmonton, Alberta. 135pp.
    • Powell, G.L. and A.P. Russell. 1992b. The staus of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. 22pp.
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    • Powell, G.L. and A.P. Russell. 1994a. A radiotelemetric study of movement, thermal ecology, and hibernation site selection in an Alberta population of the eastern short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre). A report submitted to Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Division, 7th Floor, O.S. Longman Building, 6909-116th St., Edmonton, Alberta T6H 4P2.
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