Spotted Bat - Euderma maculatum
Spotted Bats have huge pink ears (37 to 50 millimeters long), the dorsum is blackish with a large white spot on each shoulder and on the rump, and white patches at the posterior base of each ear. Total length is 107 to 115 millimeters, forearm length is 48 to 51 millimeters, and weight is 16 to 20 grams. The greatest length of the skull is 18.4 to 19.0 millimeters (small sample). The supraorbital region of the skull is sharply ridged, but a median sagittal crest is absent; 34 teeth are present (Watkins 1977). The newborn young lack any indication of having the adult color pattern (Van Zyll de Jong 1985). Four hours after birth, a male weighed 4 grams and measured 59 millimeters in length; tail length was 20 millimeters, hind foot 11 millimeters, ear 12 millimeters, and forearm 21 millimeters.
Spotted Bats differ from other bats in Montana by the unique patterning of the fur and the extremely large ears. Their echolocation calls (an insect-like clicking) are audible to the unaided human ear.
Western Hemisphere Range
Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Little information is available. The species has not been reported during winter in Montana.
Possibly some Spotted Bats migrate south for the winter, but there is no direct evidence of migratory movements. At least for lower elevation locations, Spotted Bats appear not to migrate (O'Farrell 1981). Possibly they occupy coniferous stands in summer and migrate to lower elevations in late summer/early fall (Barbour and Davis 1969, Berna 1990). There are no winter records for British Columbia (Nagorsen and Brigham 1993), but mid- or late October records from here as well as Wyoming (Priday and Luce 1999) suggest that some individuals may over-winter without making an extensive migratory movement.
Spotted Bats have been encountered or detected most often in open arid habitats dominated by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata and A. nova), sometimes intermixed with limber pine or Douglas-fir, or in grassy meadows in ponderosa pine savannah (Fenton et al. 1987, Worthington 1991a, Hendricks and Carlson 2001). Cliffs, rocky outcrops, and water are other attributes of sites where Spotted Bats have been found (Foresman 2012), typical for the global range. Spotted Bats have been captured foraging over an isolated pond within a few kilometers of huge limestone escarpments in the Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area, Carbon County (Worthington 1991a, 1991b), and the first record for the state was of an individual that flew in an open window at a private residence in Billings, Yellowstone County (Nicholson 1950). Roost habitats and sites have not been documented in Montana.
In other areas, Spotted Bats have been detected at water sources and in meadow openings, often with large cliffs nearby (Leonard and Fenton 1983, Storz 1995, Perry et al. 1997, Rabe et al. 1998, Gitzen et al. 2001).
Spotted Bats roost in caves, and in cracks and crevices in cliffs and canyons, with which this species is consistently associated; it can crawl with ease on both horizontal and vertical surfaces (Snow 1974, Van Zyll de Jong 1985). In British Columbia, individuals used the same roost each night during May through July, but not after early August (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). Winter habitat is poorly documented. A possible explanation for the early paucity of collections in natural situations is the Spotted Bat's narrow habitat tolerance (Handley 1959, Snow 1974).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at firstname.lastname@example.org
or (406) 444-3655.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. Special Publication No. 12. Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists. 278 p.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
This species is insectivorous. Apparently Spotted Bats feed primarily on noctuid moths, and sometimes beetles (Barbour and Davis 1969, Schmidly 1991, Van Zyll de Jong 1985). In Texas, the contents of 15 stomachs combined were 97.1% moths by volume, 2.7% beetles (Scarabidae), and 0.2% other insects (Easterla and Whitaker 1972); volumes in two of the stomachs were 10% and 30% beetles. In British Columbia, foraging took place 5 to 15 meters above ground (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). In southeastern Utah, Spotted Bats fed on small insects within 2 meters of the ground. Sometimes insects are captured on the ground (Poche and Bailie 1974), though this has been disputed. In Colorado, individuals foraged at heights above 10 meters (Navo et al. 1992). Timing and routes of foraging may sometimes be quite predictable and consistent (Leonard and Fenton 1983, Van Zyll de Jong 1985, Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989, Rabe et al. 1998). Food habits and foraging ecology in Montana have not been reported or studied.
The Spotted Bat hunts alone, and at least sometimes appears to maintain exclusive foraging areas (Leonard and Fenton 1983), although in other cases individual foraging areas overlap (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). Neighboring bats show evidence of mutual avoidance and have been observed to turn away when encountering one another near the boundaries of their hunting areas.
The Spotted Bat has been reported active from early April to late October in British Columbia (Nagorsen and Brigham 1993), early June to mid-October in Wyoming (Priday and Luce 1999), and late March to late October in Nevada (Geluso 2000). The full extent of the active period in Montana is not known; records extend from late June to early August (Nicholson 1950, Worthington 1991a, Hendricks and Carlson 2001, Hendricks and Carlson personal observation).
Apparently Spotted Bats are relatively solitary but may hibernate in small clusters (Easterla 1973); roosts and hibernacula are usually located in cliffs, and to some degree caves. Individuals in British Columbia roost solitarily during the active season (Leonard and Fenton 1983). Home ranges may be relatively large. Foraging 6 to 10 kilometers from the day roost each night was documented in British Columbia (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989); a lactating female in northern Arizona moved 38.5 kilometers between the day and night roosts, and a male flew 32 kilometers to a day roost (Rabe et al. 1998).
The echolocation call is loud and high-pitched; the fundamental frequency sweeps from 12 to 6 kHz and is a double or single steep frequency modulated pulse. The call is repeated at a rate of 2 to 6 per second and can clearly be heard by the unaided human ear at distances up to 250 meters (Van Zyll de Jong 1985), a very useful feature for determining the presence of these bats during inventory work.
Normal predators have not been reported, but recently released individuals in early morning have been attacked by American Kestrel, Peregrine Falcon, and Red-tailed Hawk (Easterla 1973, Watkins 1977). Sources of mortality in Montana, other than human collection, have not been reported or studied.
Little information is available on Spotted Bat reproduction. A lactating female and a juvenile female were captured in mid-July 1990 at the same pond in Carbon County (Worthington 1991a).
In the southwestern states, young are born in late May or early June (Easterla 1973, Watkins 1977); time of birth in the north may be somewhat later (Van Zyll de Jong 1985). A female in southwestern Texas gave birth to a single young on June 11 (Easterla 1973). A pregnant Spotted Bat was collected in British Columbia on June 16. Lactating females have been captured from late June to early July in New Mexico (Findley and Jones 1965, Perry et al. 1997), from mid- to late July in Nevada (Geluso 2000), and mid-August in Utah (Barbour and Davis 1969). Post-lactating females were captured on August 28 and 29 in extreme northern Wyoming (Priday and Luce 1999). All evidence points to the birth of a single young (Easterla 1973, Watkins 1977), which remains with the mother the first few days even during flight. In Texas, testis size was greatest (10 x 3 millimeters, 11 x 3 millimeters) from late June through mid-July (Easterla 1973). Mating may take place in late summer in the south, and later in the north (Nagorsen and Brigham 1993), but reproductive data from across the range are limited.
Typical population age structure and longevity are unknown, but recruitment is expected to be low, given the low birth rate. Age at maturity is also not known, but females probably give birth in their second year.
Spotted Bats have persisted for over 50 years in the general area of the state where they were first discovered (Nicholson 1950, Hendricks and Carlson 2001). This is encouraging, given that essentially nothing is known of abundance, reproductive biology, habitat requirements, movements, and roost site selection in Montana, nor have the potential threats to this bat been identified. The lack of information on this species makes development and implementation of any effective management activity tenuous. Fortunately, the roosting habitat most favored by this bat (cliffs) provides it protection from many kinds of disturbance. Nevertheless, any roosts that are discovered should be protected and monitored. Studies to fill the gaps in our knowledge about this bat in Montana are needed, especially surveys throughout the state in appropriate habitats and landscapes to determine the full extent of its distribution. The audible calls make a survey much easier to conduct (Pierson and Rainey 1998), as no special skill is needed, other than familiarity with the calls and knowledge of the habitats likely to support Spotted Bats. The most immediate management action that can benefit this species (and other bat species as well) is protection of water sources in arid regions where this bat is present and water sources are limited. Open waste sumps, and similar hazardous standing water bodies associated with oil and gas fields, could present a significant hazard to Spotted Bats and other bat species as these energy resources are exploited.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Barbour, R. W. and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, Kentucky. 286 pp.
- Berna, H. J. 1990. Seven bat species from the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, with a new record of Euderma maculatum. Southwestern Naturalist 35:354-356.
- Easterla, D. A. 1973. Ecology of the 18 species of Chiroptera at Big Bend National Park, Texas. Part I and II. Northwest Missouri State University Studies 34:1-165.
- Easterla, D. A. and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1972. Food habits of some bats from Big Bend National Park, Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 53:887-890.
- Fenton, M. B., D. C. Tennant, and J. Wyszeck. 1987. Using echolocation calls to measure distribution of bats: the case of Euderma maculatum. Journal of Mammalogy 68:142-144.
- Findley, J. S. and C. Jones. 1965. Comments on spotted bats. Journal of Mammalogy 46:679-680.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Geluso, K. 2000. Distribution of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in Nevada, including notes on reproduction. Southwestern Naturalist 45:347-352.
- Gitzen, R. A., S. D. West, and J. A. Baumgardt. 2001. A record of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) from Crescent Bar, Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 82:28-30.
- Handley, C. O., Jr. 1959. A revision of American bats of the genera Euderma and Plecotus. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 110:95-246.
- Hendricks, P. and J.C. Carlson. 2001. Bat use of abandoned mines in the Pryor Mountains. Report to the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Mine Waste Cleanup Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 8 pp.
- Leonard, M. L. and M. B. Fenton. 1983. Habitat use by spotted bats (Euderma maculatum, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): roosting and foraging behavior. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61:1487-1491.
- Nagorsen, D. W. and R. M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Volume I. The Mammals of British Columbia. UBC Press, Vancouver. 164 pp.
- Navo, K. W., J. A. Gore, and G. T. Skiba. 1992. Observations on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum, in northwestern Colorado. Journal of Mammalogy 73:547-551.
- Nicholson, A. J. 1950. A record of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) for Montana. Journal of Mammalogy 31(2):197.
- Perry, T. W., P. M. Cryan, S. R. Davenport, and M. A. Bogan. 1997. New locality for Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 42:99-101.
- Pierson, E. D. and W. E. Rainey. 1998. Distribution of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum, in California. Journal of Mammalogy 79:1296-1305.
- Poche, R. M. and G. L. Bailie. 1974. Notes on the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) from southwest Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 34:254-256.
- Priday, J. and B. Luce. 1999. New distributional records for spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist 59:97-101.
- Rabe, M. J., M. S. Siders, C. R. Miller, and T. K. Snow. 1998. Long foraging distance for a spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in northern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 43:266-269.
- Schmidly, D. J. 1991. The bats of Texas. Texas A and M University Press, College Station. 188 pp.
- Snow, C. 1974. Spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. Habitat management services for endangered species: report number 4. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, and Denver Service Center, Denver, CO.
- Storz, J. F. 1995. Local distribution and foraging behavior of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in northwestern Colorado and adjacent Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 55:78-83.
- Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1985. Handbook of Canadian mammals. Volume 2. Bats. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. 212 pp.
- Wai-Ping, V. and M. B. Fenton. 1989. Ecology of spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) roosting and foraging. Journal of Mammalogy 70:617-622.
- Watkins, L.C. 1977. Euderma maculatum. Mammalian Species 77:1-4.
- Worthington, D. J. 1991. Abundance, distribution, and sexual segregation of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana. M.A. Thesis. University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. 41 pp.
- Worthington, D.J. 1991. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana and north eastern Wyoming. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Abernethy, I.M., M.D. Andersen, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration year 2 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West: natural history, ecology and conservation. University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO. 289 pp.
- Agnarsson, I., C.M. Zambrana-Torrelio, N.P. Flores-Saldana, L.J. May-Collado. 2011. A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia). PLoS Currents, 3, RRN1212.
- Amichai, E., G. Blumrosen, and Y. Yovel. 2015. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1821): 20152064.
- Arnett, E.B. 2007. Presence, relative abundance, and resource selection of bats in managed forest landscapes in western Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
- Bachen, D.A, and B.A. Maxell. 2014. Distribution and status of bird, small mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, South Dakota Field Office-BLM. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, South Dakota Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana 25 pp. plus appendices.
- Baker, R.H. and C.J. Phillips. 1965. Mammals from El Nevado de Colima, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 46(4): 691-693.
- Barclay, R.R. 1991. Population Structure of Temperate Zone Insectivorous Bats in Relation to Foraging Behavior and Energy Demand. Journal of Animal Ecology 60(1): 165.
- Bat Conservation International. G4 Harp Trap: Assembly and Advice. 8 p.
- Baxter, D.M., J.M. Psyllakis, M.P. Gillingham, and E.L. O'Brien. 2006. Behavioural response of bats to perceived predation risk while foraging. Ethology 112(10): 977-983.
- Bell, J.F., G.J. Moore, G.H. Raymond, and C.E. Tibbs. 1962. Characteristics of Rabies in Bats in Montana. American Journal of Public Health 52(8): 1293-1301.
- Bell, J.F., W.J. Hadlow and W.L. Jellison. 1957. A survey of chiropteran rabies in western Montana. Public Health Reports. 72(1): 16-18.
- Bender, M.J. and G.D. Hartman. 2015. Bat Activity Increases with Barometric Pressure and Temperature During Autumn in Central Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 14(2): 231-242.
- Benson, S.B. 1954. Records of the spotted bat (Euderma maculata) from California and Utah. Journal of Mammalogy 35(1): 117.
- Berthinussen, A. and J. Altringham. 2012. The effect of a major road on bat activity and diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 82-89.
- Best, T.L. 1988. Morphologic variation in the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. American Midland Naturalist 119(2): 244-252.
- Black, H.M. 1976. American kestrel predation on the bats Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, and Tadarida brasiliensis. The Southwestern Naturalist, 21(2): 250-251.
- Bogan, M. A., and K. Geluso. 1999. Bat roosts and historic structures on National Park Service lands in the Rocky Mountain region. US G S Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, Albuquerque, NM. Unpublished report. 25 pp
- Bogdanowicz, W., S. Kasper, and R. D. Owen. 1998. Phylogeny of plecotine bats: reevaluation of morphological and chromosomal data. Journal of Mammalogy 79:78-90.
- British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. 1998. Inventory Methods for Bats; Standards for Components of British Columbia's Biodiversity No. 20. Prepared for the Terrestrial Ecosystems Task Force Resources Inventory Committee. Version 2.0. 58 p.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A preliminary survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest, Montana: 1991. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 35 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest Montana: 1992. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 39 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Townsend Ranger District, Helena National Forest, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 16 pp.
- Butts, Thomas. 1997. Bat surveys Indian Creek Canyon, Elkhorn Mountains, Montana. Continental Divide Wildlife Consulting. Helena, MT 32 pg.
- Callahan, E.V. and R.D. Drobney. 1997. Selection of summer roosting sites by Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in Missouri. Journal of Mammalogy 78(3): 818.
- Caltrider, T. 2008. Summary of bat research at Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park, report for MTFWP. College of Forestry and Conservation. University of Montana, Missoula. 22 pp.
- Carlson, J. C. and S. V. Cooper. 2003. Plant and Animal Resources and Ecological Condition of the Forks Ranch Unit of the Padlock Ranch, Big Horn County, Montana and Sheridan County, Wyoming. Unpublished report to The Nature Conservancy Montana Field Offi
- Carlson, J.C. and P. Hendricks. 2001. A Proposal for: Bat Use of Highway Structures: A Pilot Study. Submitted to the Montana Department of Transportation.
- Chambers, C.L., M.J. Herder, K. Yasuda, D.G. Mikesic, S.M. Dewhurst, W.M. Masters, and D. Vleck. 2011. Roosts and home ranges of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in northern Arizona. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89(12): 1256-1267.
- Chester, J. M., N. P. Campbell, K. Karsmizki, and D. Wirtz. 1979. Resource inventory and evaluation. Azure Cave, Montana. BLM unpublished report. 55 pp.
- Choate, J. R. and J. M. Anderson. 1997. Bats of Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 29:39-47.
- Christy, R. E. and S. W. West. 1993. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests. U.S.D.A., Forest Serv., Pac. Northw. res. Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-308.
- Chung-MacCoubrey, A.L. 2005. Use of pinyon–juniper woodlands by bats in New Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 204: 209–220.
- Clement, M.J., J.M. O'Keefe, and B. Walters. 2015. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. Ecosphere 6(10): 184.
- Clement, M.J., T.J. Rodhouse, P.C. Ormsbee, J.M. Szewczak, and J.D. Nichols. 2014. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(5): 1460-1467.
- Cockrum, E.L., B. Musgrove, and Y. Peteryszyn. 1996. Bats of Mohave County, Arizona: populations and movements. Occasional Papers of The Museum, Texas Tech University 157: 1-71.
- Coleman, J.L. and R.R. Barclay. 2013. Prey availability and foraging activity of grassland bats in relation to urbanization. Journal of Mammalogy 94(5): 1111-1122.
- Constantine, D.G., G.L. Humphrey, and T.B Herbenick. 1979. Rabies in Myotis thysanodes, Lasiurus ega, Euderma maculatum, and Eumops perotis in California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 15(2): 343-345.
- Corbett, J. 2011. Evaluation and management of select natural cave and abandoned mine features of the Lewis and Clark and Helena National Forests, Montana. Bat Conservation International. 18pp plus appendices.
- Cryan, P. M., M. A. Bogan, and J. S. Altenbach. 2000. Effect of elevation on distribution of female bats in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 81:719-725.
- Cvikel, N., E. Levin, E. Hurme, I. Borissov, A. Boonman, E. Amichai, and Y. Yovel. 2015. On-board recordings reveal no jamming avoidance in wild bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1798).
- Davis, R. 1966. Homing performance and homing ability in bats. Ecological Monographs 36(3): 201-237.
- Davis, W. B. 1937. Some mammals from western Montana and eastern Idaho. Murrelet 18:22-27.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part I: Control. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2. 6 p.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part II: Identification and Biology. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2A. 10 p.
- Dubois, K. 1999. Region 4 bat surveys: 1998 progress report. Unpublished report, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Region 4 Headquarters, Great Falls, Montana. 20 pp.
- DuBois, K. 2000. Species occurrence and Distribution of Bats in North Central Montana: Range Map Changes Resulting from Two Years of Field Surveys. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 6(4): 376.
- Ducummon, S.L. 1997. The North American bats and mines project: a cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation. Paper presented at the 1997 National Meeting of the American Society for Mining and Reclamation, Austin, Texas.
- Easteria, D.A. 1971. Notes on young and adults of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. Journal of Mammalogy, 52: 475-476.
- Easterla, D.A. 1976. 2nd and 3rd newborn of spotted bat, Euderma maculatum, and comments on species in Texas. American Midland Naturalist 96(2): 499-501.
- Feigley, H.P. 1998. An Examination of the Issues and Feasibility of Conducting Surveys of Abandoned Mines for Bats. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Feigley, H.P., M. Brown, S. Martinez, and K. Schletz. 1997.Assessment of mines for importance to bat species of concern, southwestern Montana. Report to: U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center; 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400. 9pp.
- Fenton, M.B. 1990. The Foraging Behavior and Ecology of Animal-Eating Bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(3): 411-422.
- Fenton, M.B. 2003. Science and the conservation of bats: where to next? Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(1) 6-15.
- Fenton, M.B., C.C. Tennant, and J. Wyszecki. 1983. A survey of the distribution of Euderma maculatum throughout its known range in the United States and Canada by monitoring its audible echolocation calls. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque. 20pp.
- Fenton, M.B., D.C. Tennant, and J. Wyszecki. 1987. Using Echolocation Calls to Measure the Distribution of Bats: The Case of Euderma maculatum. Journal of Mammalogy. 68 (1): 142-144.
- Flath, Dennis L., 1979, Nongame species of special interest or concern: Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes. January 1979.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. American Society of Mammologists, Special Publication Number 12. Lawrence, KS. 278 pp.
- Frost, D. R., and R. M. Timm. 1992. Phylogeny of plecotine bats (Chiroptera: "Vespertilionidae"): proposal of a logically consistent taxonomy. Am. Mus. Novitates 3034:1-16.
- Fullard, James H., et al. 1983. Sensory relationships of moths and bats sampled from two nearctic sites. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61(8):1752-1757.
- Garber, Christopher S. 1991. A survey for Townsend's Big-eared Bat (Plecotus townsendii<\i>) and the Spotted Bat, (Euderma maculatum<\i>) on the Targhee National Forest in Wyoming. Unpublished Report to the USDA Forest Service. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database,
- Geluso, K. 2008. Spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) from Mt. Taylor, New Mexico. Western North American Naturalist. 68(1): 119-122.
- Genoways, H. H., and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1972. Mammals from southwestern North Dakota. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University 6:1-36.
- Genter, D. L. 1986. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves. Great Basin Naturalist 46(2):241-244.
- Genter, D.L. 1988. Status and distribution of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) and western big-eared bat (Plecotus townsendii) in the Custer National Forest, MT. Unpublished report to the U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.
- Genter, D.L. and K.A. Jurist. 1995. Bats of Montana. Guide for Assessing Mines for Bats Workshop, June 14-15, 1995, Helena, MT, hosted by Montana Department of State Lands and the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 11 pp.
- Griscom, H.R. and D.A. Keinath. 2011. Inventory and status of bats at Devils Tower National Monument. Report prepared for the USDI National Park Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Griscom, H.R., M.D. Anderson, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration, year 1 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Hanauska-Brown, L., B.A. Maxell, A. Petersen, and S. Story. 2014. Diversity Monitoring in Montana 2008 – 2010 Final Report. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. Helena, MT. 78 pp.
- Harmata, A., D. Flath, R. Hazlewood, and S. Milodragovich. 2002. Initial Site Evaluation for Wind Resource Development in Montana: An Index Relative to Potential Impacts on Vertebrate Wildlife. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 8(4): 253-254.
- Harvey, M.J., J.S. Altenbach, and T.L. Best. 2011. Bats of the United States and Canada. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. p. 202
- Hein, C.D., S.B. Castleberry, and K.V. Miller. 2009. Site-occupancy of bats in relation to forested corridors. Forest Ecology and Management 257(4): 1200-1207.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Preliminary bat inventory of caves and abandoned mines on BLM lands, Judith Mountains, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 21 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1997. Mine assessments for bat activity, Garnet Resource Area, BLM: 1997. Unpublished report to USDI, Bureau of Land Management. 17pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1998. Bats surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1997-1998. November 1998.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Effect of gate installation on continued use by bats of four abandoned mine workings in western Montana. Unpublished report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Mine Assessment for Bat Activity, Helena National Forest: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in the Philipsburg, Montana area: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.13pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Bat survey along the Norris-Madison Junction Road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 15pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2003. Assessment of Selected Mines for Use by Bats in the Garnet and Avon Areas: 2002. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Hendricks, P. and B.A. Maxell. 2005. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region Lands in Montana: 2005. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P. and D. Kampwerth. 2001. Roost environments for bats using abandoned mines in southwestern Montana : a preliminary assessment. Report to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 19 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and D.L. Genter. 1997. Bat surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 25 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and L.M. Hendricks. 2010. Water Aquistion During Daylight by Free-Ranging Myotis Bats. Northwestern Naturalist 91(3): 336-338.
- Hendricks, P., B.A. Maxell, S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2006. Riparian Bat Surveys in Eastern Montana. A report to the USDI Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P., C. Currier, and J. Carlson. 2004. Bats of the BLM Billings Field Office in south-central Montana, with emphasis on the Pryor Mountains. Report to Bureau of Land Management Billings Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 19 pp. + appendices.
- Hendricks, P., D. Kampwerth and M. Brown. 1999. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in southwestern Montana: 1997-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 29 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Sioux District, Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 41 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter and J.D. Reichel. 1996. Bats of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 99 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana: 1994. MTNHP report.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2005. Bat Use of Highway Bridges in South-Central Montana. FHWA/MT-05-007/8159. Final Report prepared for the Montana Department of Transportation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, prepared by the Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier, and B.A. Maxell. 2007. Filling the distribution gaps for small mammals in Montana. Helena, MT.: Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, Paul. 2012. Winter Records of Bats in Montana. Northwestern Naturalist. 93:154-162.
- Hill J.E. and J.D. Smith: 1984. Bats: a natural history. Univ. Texas Press Austin. 243 pp.
- Hinman, K.E. and T.K. Snow, eds. 2003. Arizona Bat Conservation Strategic Plan. Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program Technical Report 213. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
- Hoofer, S. R., and R. A. Van Den Bussche. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of plecotine bats and allies based on mitochondrial ribosomal sequences. Journal of Mammalogy 82:131-137.
- Humphrey, S. R. 1975. Nursery roosts and community diversity of Nearctic bats. Journal of Mammalogy 56:321-346.
- Jean, C., P. Hendricks, M. Jones, S. Cooper, and J. Carlson. 2002. Ecological communities on the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: inventory and review of aspen and wetland systems. Report to Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge.
- Jiang, T., H. Wu, J. Feng. 2015. Patterns and causes of geographic variation in bat echolocation pulses. Integrative Zoology 10(3): 241-256.
- Jones, J.K., Jr., R.P. Lampe, C.A. Spenrath, and T.H. Kunz. 1973. Notes on the distribution and natural history of bats in southeastern Montana. Occasional papers (Texas Tech University Museum) 15:1-11.
- Keeley, B. W., and M. D. Tuttle. 1999. “Bats in American Bridges.” Resource Publication No. 4. Bat Conservation International. Austin, TX. 41 p.
- Keinath, D. 2004. Bat and Terrestrial Mammal Inventories in the Greater Yellowstone Network: A progress report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 17 pp.
- Keinath, D. 2005. Supplementary Mammal Inventory of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Final Report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 21 pp.
- Keinath, D.A. 2001. Bat Habitat Delineation and Survey Suggestions for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Unpublished report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for the North American Bat Conservation Partnership.
- Keinath, D.A. 2005. A bat Conservation Evaluation for White Grass Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Unpublished report for Grand Teton National Park by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Data Base, Laramie, WY.
- Keinath, D.A. 2007. Yellowstone's World of Bats: Taking Inventory of Yellowstone's Night Life. Yellowstone Science 15: 3-13.
- Keinath, Douglas A. 2005. Bat inventory of the Greater Yellowstone Network: Final Report. National Park Service Greater Yellowstone Network Inventory and Monitoring Program (hardcopy).
- Kingston, T., G. Jones, Z. Akbar, and T.H. Kunz. 2003. Alternation of echolocation calls in 5 species of aerial-feeding insectivorous bats from Malaysia. Journal of Mammalogy 84(1): 205-215.
- Kubista, C.E. and A. Bruckner. 2015. Importance of urban trees and buildings as daytime roosts for bats. Biologia 70(11): 1545-1552.
- Kudray, G.M., P. Hendricks, E. Crowe, and S.V. Cooper. 2004. Riparian forests of the Wild and Scenic Missouri River: ecology and management. Prepared for Lewistown Field Office, Bureau of Land Management, Lewistown, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 29 pp. plus appendices.
- Kuenzi, A. J., G. T. Downard, and M. L. Morrison. 1999. Bat distribution and hibernacula use in west central Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 59:213-220.
- Kunz, T. H. (ed). 1988. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Smithsonian Inst., Washington D.C., 533 pp.
- Kunz, T.H. and M.B. Fenton. 2003. Bat Ecology. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. p. 1-745.
- Kunz, T.H. and P.A. Racey. 1998. Bat biology and conservation. International Bat Research Conference 1995. Boston University. Smithsonian Institution Press.
- LaMarr, S. and A.J. Kuenzi. 2011. Bat species presence in southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 17:1-4. Pp 14-19.
- Lampe, R.P., J.K. Jones Jr., R.S. Hoffmann, and E.C. Birney. 1974. The mammals of Carter County, southeastern Montana. Occa. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kan. 25:1-39.
- Lemke, T. 1991. Big Sky UFOs. Montana Outdoors 22(6):2-7.
- Lenard, S., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and C. Currier. 2007. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region 1 Lands in Montana: 2006. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 23 pp. plus appendices.
- Lenard, S., P. Hendricks, and B.A. Maxell. 2009. Bat surveys on USFS Northern Region lands in Montana: 2007. A report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Helena, MT. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 21 pp plus appendices.
- Leonard, M.L. and M.B. Fenton. 1984. Echolocation calls of Euderma maculatum: use in orientation and communication. Journal of Mammalogy 65(1):122-126.
- Lewis, S. E. 1995. “Roost Fidelity of Bats: a Review.” Journal of Mammalogy 76:481-496.
- Lilley, T.M., J.S. Johnson, L. Ruokolainen, E.J. Rogers, C.A. Wilson, S.M. Schell, K.A. Field, and D.M. Reeder. 2016. White-nose syndrome survivors do not exhibit frequent arousals associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection. Frontiers in Zoology 13(1): 1.
- Luce, R.J., M.A. Bogan, M.J. O'Farrell, and D.A. Keinath. 2004. Species assessment for Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum) in Wyoming. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming. 62 pp.
- Luce, Robert J. and Doug Keinath. 2007. Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum): A technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project. 52 pp.
- Madson, M. and G. Hanson. 1992. Bat hibernaculum search in the Pryor Mountains, southcentral Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 35 pp.
- Madson. M. 1990. Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, with maps. 6 pp.
- Martinez, S. 1999. Evaluation of selected bat habitat sites along the Mammoth-Norris grand loop road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1997-1998. [Unpublished report submitted to the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT]. 16pp.
- Mathews, F., N. Roche, T. Aughney, N. Jones, J. Day, J. Baker, and S. Langton. 2015. Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370(1667): 20140124.
- Matthews, W. L., and J. E. Swenson. 1982. The mammals of east-central Montana. Proc. Mont.
Acad. Sci. 41:1-13.
- McGee, M., D.A. Keinath and G.P. Beauvais. 2002. Survey for rare vertebrates in the Pinedale Field Office of the USDI Bureau of Land Management (Wyoming). Unpublished report prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management. Wyoming State Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Mead, J.I. and D.G. Mikesic. 2001. First fossil record of Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae), eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Southwest Naturalist 46(3): 380-383.
- Medeiros, J.L. and R.A. Heckmann. 1971. Euderma maculatum from California Infected with Rabies Virus. Journal of Mammalogy 52(4): 858.
- Mickey, A. B. 1961. Record of the spotted bat from Wyoming. Journal of Mammalogy 42(3):401-402.
- Morrison, M.L. and S. Fox. 2009. Bats associated with inactive mines in the western Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist 69(1): 134-137.
- Mumford, R. E. And J. B. Cope. 1964. Distribution and Status of the Chrioptera of Indiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 72(2):473-489.
- Nagorsen, D. W., A. A. Bryant, D. Kerridge, G. Roberts, A. Roberts, and M. J. Sarell. 1993. Winter bat records for British Columbia. Northwest. Nat. 74:61-66.
- Natural Resources Conservation Service and Bat Conservation International. 1998. Bats and mines: Evaluating abandoned mines for bats: recommendations for survey and closure. 6 p.
- Neuweiler, G. 1989. Foraging ecology and audition in echolocating bats. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4(6): 160-166.
- Neuweiler, G. 1990. Auditory adaptations for prey capture in echolocating bats. Physiological Reviews 70(3): 615-641.
- Nowak, R.M. and E.P. Walker. 1994. Walker's bats of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland.
- O'Farrell, M. J. 1981. Status report: Euderma maculatum. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by WESTEC Services Inc. Las Vegas, NV. Report Number 810400. 28 p.
- Olson, C.R., D.P. Hobson, and M.J. Pybus. 2011. Changes in Population Size of Bats at a Hibernaculum in Alberta, Canada, in Relation to Cave Disturbance and Access Restrictions. Northwestern Naturalist 92(3): 224-230.
- Painter, M.L., C.L. Chambers, M. Siders, R.R. Doucett, J.O. Whitaker Jr., and D.L. Phillips. 2009. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87(10): 865-87
- Parker, H.C. 1952. 2 new records of the spotted bat in California. Journal of Mammalogy 33(4): 480-482.
- Peck, J. and A. Kuenzi. 2003. Relationship of Orientation on Internal Temperature of Artificial Bat Roosts, Southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 9(1): 19-25.
- Perkins, J. M., J. M. Barss, and J. Peterson. 1990. Winter records of bats in Oregon and Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 71:59-62.
- Poche, R.M. 1975. New record of Euderma maculatum from Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy 56(4): 931-933.
- Poche, R.M. and G.A. Ruffner. 1975. Roosting behavior of male Euderma maculatum from Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 35:121-122.
- Quay, W.B. 1948. Notes on Some Bats from Nebraska and Wyoming. Journal of Mammalogy 29(2): 181-182.
- Qumsiyeh, M.B., and J.W. Bickham. 1993. Chromosomes and relationships of long-eared bats of the genera Plecotus and Otonycteris. Journal of Mammalogy 74:376-382.
- Rabe, M. J., T. E. Morrell, H. Green, J. C. demos, Jr., and C. R. Miller. 1998. Characteristics of ponderosa pine snag roosts used by reproductive bats in northeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:612-621.
- Reid, F. 2006. Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 608 pp.
- Reynolds, R.P. 1981. Elevational record for Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). The Southwestern Naturalist 26(1):91-92.
- Rodhouse, T.J., M.F. McCaffrey, and R.G. Wright. 2005. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in Central Oregon. Western North American Naturalist 65(2): 215-222.
- Roemer, D.M. 1994. Results of field surveys for bats on the Kootenai National Forest and the Lolo National Forest of western Montana, 1993. Unpublished report for the Kootenai National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 19 pp.
- Rossillon, M. 1995. The McDonald Mine, west of Ravalli: a cultural resource inventory and evaluation. Renewable Technologies, Inc.. Butte. MT. Unpublished report. 24 pp.
- Sasse, D. 1989. Lick Creek Cave - Survey for Bats. White Sulfur Springs, MT: USDA Forest Service, Lewis and Clark National Forest. Report to the district ranger of Kings Hill Ranger District.
- Sasse, D. C. 1991 . Survey of Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, U.S. Forest Service Belt Creek Information Station, Neihart, MT. 1 3 pp.
- Scheeter, Jessica and David Zell. 1996. Bat survey of Lower Birch Creek Drainage, Beaverhead National Forest.
- Schmidt, C.A. 2003. Conservation Assessment for the Spotted Bat relative to the Black Hills National Forest South Dakota and Wyoming. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Custer, SD. 18 p.
- Schmidt, U. and G. Joermann. 1986. The Influence of Acoustical Interferences on Echolocation in Bats. Mammalia 50(3): 379-390.
- Schwab, N.A. 2004. Bat Conservation Strategy and plan for the State of Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 10(1-4): 80.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2003. Mine Assessments for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2003. Report to USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 10pp.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2004. Mine Assessment for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2004. USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 16 pp.
- Sherwin, R.E. and W.L. Gannon. 2005. Documentation of an urban winter roost of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum). Southwestern Naturalist 50(3): 402-407.
- Sherwin, R.E., J.S. Altenbach, and D.L. Waldien. 2009. Managing abandoned mines for bats. Bat Conservation International.
- Swenson, J. E. and J. C. Bent. 1977. The bats of Yellowstone County, southcentral Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 37:82-84.
- Swenson, J.E. and G.F. Shanks, Jr. 1979. Noteworthy records of bats from northeastern Montana. Montana. Journal of Mammalogy 60:650-652
- Taylor, D.A.R. and M.D. Tuttle. 2007. Water for wildlife: a handbook for ranchers and range managers. Bat Conservation International. 20 p.
- Thomas, D.W. 1995. Hibernating Bats Are Sensitive to Nontactile Human Disturbance. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 940-946.
- Thompson, L.S. 1982. Distribution of Montana amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Bozeman: Montana Audubon Council. 24 pp.
- Tigner, J. and E.D. Stukel. 2003. Bats of the Black Hills: a description of status and conservation needs. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Wildlife Division Report 2003-05. 94 p.
- Tigner, Joel. 2007. Bat hibernacula surveys (in) gated mines, Pryor Mountains, Carbon County, Montana - Report to BLM. Batworks 2416 Cameron Drive, Rapid City, SD 57702.
- Tigner, Joel. 2005. Active Season Bat Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, MT. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 16pp.
- Tigner, Joel. 2006. Bat Hibernacula Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, Montana. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 9pp.
- Toone, R.A. 1991. General inventory for Spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) on the Abajo Mountains, Monticello R.D., Manti-LaSal National Forest, Utah. 1991 Cooperative Challenge Cost Share Project. Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City, Utah. 19 pp.
- Tumlison, R., and M. E. Douglas. 1992. Parsimony analysis and the phylogeny of the plecotine bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). J. Mamm. 73:276-285.
- Turner, R. W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas Misc. Pub. No. 60. 178 pp.
- Tuttle, M.D. and D.A.R. Taylor. 1998. Bats and mines. Bat Conservation International, Inc. Resource Publication No. 3. 52 p.
- Twente, J. W., Jr. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats. Ecology 36(4): 706-732.
- Van Gelder, R.G. 1956. Echo-location failure in migratory bats. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 59(2): 220-222.
- Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. and P. Geraghty. 1985. Handbook of Canadian Mammals: Volume 2: Bats. Canadian Museum of Nature. 212 p.
- Verts, B. J. and L. N. Carraway. 1998. Land mammals of Oregon. University of California Press, Berkeley. xvi + 668 pp.
- Vonhof, M. J., and R.M.R. Barclay. 1996. Roost-site selection and roosting ecology of forest-dwelling bats in southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:1797-1805.
- Weller, T.J. and D.C. Lee. 2007. Mist Net Effort Required to Inventory a Forest Bat Species Assemblage. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 251-257.
- Willis, C.K. 2015. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host–Pathogen Systems. Integrative Comparative Biology 55(4): 631-641
- Wilson, D. E., F. R. Cole, J. D. Nichols, R. Rudran, and M. S. Foster, (eds.). 1996. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for mammals. Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. 409 pp.
- Wolfe, M.L. and A. Kozlowski. 2006. Bat inventories at Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site and Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, FInal Report. Rocky Mountains Cooperative Ecosystems Studies Unit. Utah State University. Logan, UT. 26 pp.
- Woodsworth, G.C., G.P. Bell, and M.B. Fenton. 1981. Observations of the echolocation, feeding behaviour, and habitat use of Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in southcentral British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 59:1099-1102.
- Worthington, D.J. and H.N. Ross. 1990. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana. Unpublished report for the Montana Natural Heritage Program. 20 pp.
- Zukal, J., J. Pikula, and H. Bandouchova. 2015. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect. Mammalian Biology 80(3): 220-227.