ScoreG - 100,000-1,000,000 individuals
CommentRecent Intermountain Bird Conservation Region monitoring data for 2010 estimates the statewide population at 390,594 +/- SD of 85,930.
ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 km squared (about 8,000-80,000 square miles)
Comment139,977 square kilometers based on Natural Heritage Program range maps that appear on the Montana Field Guide.
Area of Occupancy
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreE - Relatively Stable (±25% change)
CommentSpecies favors mesic conifer forests which, in the Northern Rockies, have remained relatively stable within +/- 25% of pre European levels.
ScoreC - Rapidly Declining. Decline of 30-50% in population, range, area occupied, and/or number or condition of occurrences
CommentBreeding Bird Survey data has moderate credibility in Montana and shows an insignificant decline of -6.7% per year or 51% decline per decade. For the Northern Rockies as a wholethe data has highest credibility and shows a significant decline of -4.3% per year or 46% decline per decade. Idaho, British Columbia, Alberta, Washington, and Oregon all show declines with high credibility.
ScoreB - Moderate and imminent threat. Threat is moderate to severe and imminent for a significant proportion (20-60%) of the population or area.
CommentFire, timber harvest, and insect outbreak related to climate change are the greatest threats to the species due to its reliance on mature mesic conifer forests.
SeverityModerate - Major reduction of species population or long-term degradation or reduction of habitat in Montana, requiring 50-100 years for recovery.
CommentLoss of unbroken stands of mature trees takes a long time to recover.
ScopeModerate - 20-60% of total population or area affected
CommentFire and beetle kill are drastically changing a large portion (20-60%) of the landscape.
ImmediacyModerate - Threat is likely to be operational within 2-5 years.
CommentOngoing but could accelerate.
ScoreC - Not Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance; or species has high dispersal capability such that extirpated populations soon become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans).
CommentNot Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has a high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance. Species has good dispersal capabilities such that extirpated populations generally become reestablished through natural recolonization.
ScoreB - Narrow. Specialist. Specific habitat(s) or other abiotic and/or biotic factors (see above) are used or required by the Element, but these key requirements are common and within the generalized range of the species within the area of interest.
CommentNarrow specialist. Relies on mature mesic forest types and riparian forests and often most abundant in areas with more closed canopy.
Raw Conservation Status Score
3.5 + 0.25 (population size) + 0.0 (geographic distribution) - 0.5 (short-term trend) - 0.75 (threats) = 2.5
How Scores are Calculated