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Montana Animal Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Grizzly Bear - Ursus arctos
Other Names:  Brown Bear

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Species of Concern

Global Rank: G4
State Rank: S2S3

Agency Status
USFWS: LT,XN
USFS: THREATENED
BLM: SENSITIVE
FWP Conservation Tier: 1


 

External Links





 
General Description
Grizzly Bears have a massive head with a prominent nose, rounded inconspicuous ears, small eyes, short tail and a large, powerful body (Pasitschnaik-Arts 1993). The facial profile is concave and there is a noticeable hump above the shoulders. The claws on the front feet of adults are about 4 inches long and slightly curved. Grizzly Bears range widely in color and size. The most prevalent coloration of Grizzly Bears in Montana is medium to dark brown underfur, brown legs, hump and underparts, with light to medium grizzling on the head and back and a light patch behind the front legs. Other forms, lighter or darker with varying levels of grizzled hair patches, occur in lesser numbers. Although extremely variable depending on the season, adults are around 185 centimeters long (Foresman 2012) and weigh around 200 kilograms in males and 130 kilograms in females (Kasworm and Manley 1988).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Adult Grizzly Bears differ from American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) in being larger and by having a hump above the shoulders, a concave (rather than straight or convex) facial profile, shorter and more rounded ears, a rump lower than the shoulder hump, and longer, less curved claws usually evident in the tracks. Identification can be difficult at times and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks has developed an Online Bear ID Test to help people better distinguish between American Black Bears and Grizzly Bears.

General Distribution
Montana Range



Western Hemisphere Range

 


Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 2063

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)



Migration
No true migration occurs, although Grizzly Bears often exhibit discrete elevational movements from spring to fall, following seasonal food availability (LeFranc et al. 1987). They are generally at lower elevations in spring and higher elevations in mid-summer and winter.

Habitat
In Montana, Grizzly Bears primarily use meadows, seeps, riparian zones, mixed shrub fields, closed timber, open timber, sidehill parks, snow chutes, and alpine slabrock habitats. Habitat use is highly variable between areas, seasons, local populations, and individuals (Servheen 1983, Craighead and Mitchell 1982, Aune et al. 1984). Historically, the Grizzly Bear was primarily a plains species occurring in higher densities throughout most of eastern Montana.

Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
  • Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
    How Associations Were Made
    We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
    1. Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
    2. Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
    3. Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
    4. Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
    Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.  In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.  However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if point observations were associated with that system.  High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.  The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.  If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at bmaxell@mt.gov or (406) 444-3655.

    Suggested Uses and Limitations
    Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.  These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.  Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.  Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.  Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).  Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.

    Literature Cited
    • Adams, R.A.  2003.  Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation.  Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  289 p.
    • Dobkin, D. S.  1992.  Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34.  Missoula, MT.
    • Foresman, K.R.  2001.  The wild mammals of Montana.  Special Publication No. 12.  Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists.  278 p.
    • Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998.  Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates.  Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.  1302 p.
    • Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young.  1999.  Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32.  72 p.
    • Maxell, B.A.  2000.  Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species.  Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1.  Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana.  161 p.
    • Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath.  2004.  Amphibians and reptiles of Montana.  Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.

Food Habits
Grizzly Bears are opportunistic and adaptable omnivores. Grizzly Bears have a large vegetative component (more than half) to their diet and have evolved longer claws for digging and larger molar surface area to better exploit vegetative food sources. Grizzly Bears feed on carrion, fish (Yellowstone cutthroat trout are a large seasonal component of the diet for Yellowstone Grizzly Bears), large and small mammals, insects, fruit, grasses, bark, roots, mushrooms, and garbage. They often cache food and guard it. In the Yellowstone region, ungulate remains and rodents were a major portion of early season scats; grasses, sedges and herbs dominated in May and June, with whitebark pine seeds, fish and berries being most prevalent in late season scats when Grizzly Bears become hyperphagic (Mattson et al. 1991a, b). Whitebark pine seeds appear to be so important to Grizzly Bears that there is a correlation between Grizzly Bears killed in control actions and the success of the whitebark pine crop. More fatalities have been recorded during poor crop years when Grizzly Bears forage at lower elevations and come into contact with humans more often. Grizzly Bears often feed on insect aggregations (e.g., army cutworm moths, ladybird beetles). In the Yellowstone ecosystem, alpine insect aggregations are an important source of food, especially in the absence of high-quality foraging alternatives in July and August of most years (Mattson et al. 1991a, b). Grizzly Bears have been known to kill and consume American Black Bears (Gunther et al. 2002).

Grizzly Bears are known to feed on a wide variety of plants (36 to 74 species) in Montana. Food habits vary locally, seasonally and individually. Generally, Grizzly Bears feed on graminoids, forbs, rodents and carrion in spring. In summer, they feed on forbs, fruit, horsetails, insects, and roots; in fall, berries and pine nuts predominate (Craighead and Mitchell 1982, Servheen 1983, Aune et al. 1984). Yellow sweet-vetch is an important food with wide distribution (Edge et al. 1990).

Ecology
Annual home ranges in the Swan Mountains, Montana, averaged 768 square kilometers for males and 125 square kilometers for females; adult home ranges were larger than those for subadults. Spatial and temporal factors affected home range size (Mace and Waller 1997). Two studies examined Grizzly Bear responses to resource development (Aune et al. 1984). Cannibalism has been reported (Mattson et al. 1992).

Reproductive Characteristics
Grizzly Bears exhibit a long life span, late sexual maturity and protracted reproductive cycles (Craighead et al. 1976). They are polygamous and several males may fight over an estrus female. In Montana, Grizzly Bears breed in late April through late June or early July (Aune et al. 1984). Implantation of the fertilized egg is delayed until late autumn when the embryo implants into the uterus. Around two months after implantation, 1 to 4 (average 2.8 in Montana) young are born in the winter den. They are helpless at birth and weigh around 500 grams. Growth is rapid and young are nursed for the first 1.5 to 2.5 years (Foresman 2012). The young remain with their mother through the next two winters. Young usually obtain adult size in 4 to 6 years. Females generally breed every 2 to 4 years. Females first breed when they are 4.5 to 5.5 years old and males gain sexual maturity at the age of four and half years. A few live as long as 20 to 25 years.

Management
On July 28th, 1975, the Grizzly Bear was designated as Threatened in the lower 48 states under the Endangered Species Act. Currently, populations in the Cabinet/Yaak and Northern Continental Divide Recovery areas are listed as Threatened. The Bitterroot Recovery Zone in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana and Idaho was designated in anticipation of reintroduction of Grizzly Bears where they would be classified as experimental nonessential. This reintroduction never took place, but in 2007 a naturally colonizing Grizzly Bear was killed in the Idaho portion of this recovery area. On March 22, 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that the Yellowstone Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of Grizzly Bears is a recovered population no longer meeting the ESA’s definition of threatened or endangered (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2007). On September 21, 2009 the Yellowstone DPS was relisted as Threatened as a result of a ruling by U.S. District Judge Donald Molloy that declines in whitebark pine and inadequate conservation plans threatened the species; this ruling has been upheld by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed a 5-year review of the status of Grizzly Bears in August of 2011. The state of Montana has a Grizzly Bear Policy (MCA 12.9.103) that outlines policy guidelines for Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks to promote the conservation of Grizzly Bears in Montana. Other regionally specific management plans include the Grizzly Bear Management Plan for Southwestern Montana 2002 to 2012 and various tribal, National Forest, and National Park plans and policies. Most of these management plans are centered on three major themes: management of habitat to ensure Grizzly Bears have large expanses of suitable interconnected lands in which to exist (see "Habitat" and "Food Habits" sections above), management of Grizzly Bear/human interactions that most often result in death for the bears (and sometimes humans) involved (this is a particularly important concern for female bears because their removal may have significant impacts on the demography of isolated populations), and research to determine the population size and trends to ensure that Grizzly Bear populations are not being jeopardized. Please consult the management plans listed above for specifics on Grizzly Bear management.

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    • Aune, K., T. Stivers, and M. Madel. 1984. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigation. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 239 p.
    • Craighead, J. J. and J. A. Mitchell. 1982. Grizzly bear. In: Chapman, J. A. and G. A. Feldhamer, eds. Wild mammals of North America. pp. 515-556. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1147 p.
    • Craighead, J. J., F. C. Craighead, Jr. and J. Sumner. 1976. Reproductive cycles and rates in the grizzly bear, Ursus arctos horribilis, of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Bears: Their Biology and Management 3:337-356.
    • Edge, W. D., C. L. Marcum and S. L. Olson-Edge. 1990. Distribution and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) use of yellow sweetvetch (Hedysarum sulphurescens) in northwestern Montana and southeastern British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:435-438.
    • Foresman, K. R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 p.
    • Gunther, K. A., M. J. Biel, N. Anderson, and L. Waits. 2002. Probable grizzly bear predation on an American black bear in Yellowstone National Park. Ursus 13:372-374.
    • Kasworm, W. and T. Manley. 1988. Grizzly bear and black bear ecology with the Cabinet Mountains of northwest Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 122 p.
    • LeFranc, M.N., Jr., M.B. Moss, K.A. Patnode, and W.C. Sugg III, eds. 1987. Grizzly bear compendium. Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee. iii + 540 p.
    • Mace, R. D. and J. S. Waller. 1997. Spatial and temporal interaction of male and female grizzly bears in northwestern Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:39-52.
    • Mattson, D. J., B. M. Blanchard and R. R. Knight. 1991. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:1619-1629.
    • Mattson, D. J., C. M. Gillin, S. A. Benson and R. R. Knight. 1991. Bear feeding activity at alpine insect aggregation sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2430-2435.
    • Mattson, D. J., R. R. Knight and B. M. Blanchard. 1992. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990. Journal of Mammalogy 73:422-425.
    • Pasitschniak-Arts, M. 1993. Ursus arctos. American Society of Mammalogists, Lawrence, KS. Mammalian Species No. 439:1-10.
    • Servheen, C. 1983. Grizzly bear food habits, movements and habitat selection in the Mission Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:1026-1035.
    • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Final rule designating the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem population of grizzly bears as a Distinct Population Segment (DPS) and removing the Yellowstone DPS of grizzly bears from the federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife. March 29, 2007. Federal Register 72(60):14866.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Anonymous. 1942. Grizzly bear survey. Montana Fish and Game Comm. 1941-42 Biennial Report.
    • Anonymous. 1942. Grizzly bear, mountain goat, and moose survey. Flathead and Kootenai Management Units. Montana Fish and Game Department. Special Rep. 27 pp.
    • Anonymous. 1987. Interagency Rocky Mountain Front Wildlife Monitoring/Evaluation Program Management Guidelines for Selected Species. USDI Bureau of Land Management. 71 pp.
    • Aune, K. 1985. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigations. Mont. Dept. of Fish, Wildl. and Parks, Helena. 138 pp.
    • Aune, K. 1987. South Fork Flathead grizzly study status report. Mont. Dept. Fish, Wildt. and Parks. 8 pp.
    • Aune, K. 1992 (in press). Comparative ecology of black and grizzly bears on the Rocky Mountain Front, Montana. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage.
    • Aune, K. and T. Stivers. 1983. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigations. Mont. Dept. of Fish, Wildl. and Parks, Helena. 180 pp.
    • Aune, K. E., R. D. Mace, and D. W. Carney. 1992 (in press). The reproductive performance of female grizzly bears in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage.
    • Aune, K., and R. Mace. 1988. South Fork Flathead grizzly study. PR Proj. SE-2-TE2. Mont. Dept. Fish, Wildl. and Parks. 10 pp.
    • Aune, K., and T. Stivers. 1981. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigations. Mont. Dept. of Fish, Wildl. and Parks, Helena. 50 pp.
    • Aune, K., and T. Stivers. 1982. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigations. Mont. Dept. of Fish, Wildl. and Parks, Helena. 143 pp.
    • Aune, K., and T. Stivers. 1985. Ecological studies of the grizzly bear in the Pine Butte Preserve. Mont. Dept. of Fish, Wildl. And Parks, Helena. 154 pp.
    • Aune, K., M. Madel, and C. Hunt. 1986. Rocky Mountain Front grizzly bear monitoring and investigation. USF& WS, BLM, USFS, MTDFW& P. 175 pp.
    • Aune, K.A. and W. Kasworm. 1989. Final Report - East Front grizzly studies. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. Helena. 332 p.
    • Banci, V. 1991. Status report on the grizzly bear URSUS ARCTOS HORRIBILIS. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 171 pp.
    • Basile, J. V. 1982. Grizzly bear distribution in the Yellowstone area, 1973-79. U.S.F.S., Ogden, Res. Note INT-321.
    • Blanchard, B. M. 1978. Grizzly bear distribution in relation to habitat areas and recreational use: Cabin Creek-Hilgard Mountains. M. S. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. pp. 76.
    • Blanchard, B. M. 1979. Reconnaissance inventory of grizzly bear activity in the Centennial Mountain Range. Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team Rep. to U.S. Bureau of Land Management. 13 pp.
    • Blanchard, B. M. 1983. Grizzly bear-habitat relationships in the Yellowstone area. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 5:118-123.
    • Blanchard, B. M. 1985. Field techniques used in the study of grizzly bears. USDI National Park Service, Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team Rep. 24 pp.
    • Blanchard, B. M. 1987. Size and growth patterns of the Yellowstone grizzly bear. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 7:99-108.
    • Blanchard, B. M. 1990. Relationships between whitebark pine cone production and fall grizzly bear movements. P. 362 in W. C. Schmidt and K. J. McDonald, comps., Proc., Symp. on whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-270. 376 pp.
    • Blanchard, B. M. and R. R. Knight. 1990. Reactions of grizzly bears to wildfire in Yellowstone National Park. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:592-594.
    • Blanchard, B. M. and R. R. Knight. 1991. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears. Biol. Conserv. 58:41-67.
    • Blanchard, B. M. and R. R. Knight. No date. Status of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone system. Forty-fifth North American Wildlife Conference:263-267.
    • Blanchard, B. M., R. R. Knight, and D. J. Mattson. 1992. Distribution of Yellowstone grizzly bears during the 1980s. Am. Midl. Nat. 128:332-338.
    • Boggs, Keith., , Field inventory of wildlife resources . . . WICHE Proj. No. D117. Spec. Oc./Habitat Type.
    • Brannon, R. D. 1984. Influences of roads and developments on grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team. Unpubl. Rep. 52 pp.
    • Brannon, R. D. 1987. Nuisance grizzly bear, URSUS ARCTOS, translocations in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101:569-575.
    • Brannon, R. D., R. D. Mace, and A. R. Dood. 1988. Grizzly bear mortality in the northern Continental Divide ecosystem, Montana. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:262-269.
    • Bratkovich, A. A. 1986. Grizzly bear habitat components associated with past logging practices on the Libby Ranger District, Kootenai National Forest. Pp. 180-184 in G. P. Contreras and K. E. Evans, comps., Proc. Grizzly Bear Habitat Symp., USDA For. SelV., Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207, Ogden UT. 252 pp.
    • Butterfield, B. R., and C. H. Key. 1986. Mapping grizzly bear habitat in Glacier National Park. Pp. 58-66 in G. P. Contreras and K. E. Evans, comps., Proc. Grizzly, Bear Habitat Symp., USDA For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207, Ogden UT. 252 pp.
    • Canfield, J. E. 1987. Age and sex. Page 47 in A. L. Harting, 00., Grizzly bear compendium. Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, USDI, Fish and Wildl. Service.
    • Canfield, J. E., and A. L. Harting. 1987. Home range movements. Pp. 27-33 in A. L. Harting, ed., Grizzly bear compendium. Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, USDI, Fish and Wildl. Service.
    • Canfield, J. E., and A. L. Harting. 1987. Reproductive rates. Pp. 51-56 in A. L. Harting, ed., Grizzly bear compendium. Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, USDI, Fish and Wildt Service.
    • Carney, D. 1990. Blackfeet grizzly bear study. 2nd Ann. Rep. 21 pp.
    • Carney, D. 2004. Bear Proof Dumpsters on the Blackfeet Reservation, Final Project Performance Report
    • Carney, D., and R. Skinner. 1988. Blackfeet grizzly bear study. Ann. Rep. USDI, BIA, Blackfeet Tribe.
    • Carriles, H. 1987. Grizzly/black bear interactions and competition. M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.
    • Casebeer, R. L., M. J. Rognrud and S. M. Brandberg. 1950. Rocky Mountain goats in Montana. Montana Fish and Game Comm., Wildl. Rest. Div. Bull. No.5. 107 pp.
    • Cauble, C. 1979. Glacier's beleaguered grizzlies. National Parks and Conservation Magazine, August:22-25.
    • Chapman, J. A., and G. A. Feldhamer, editors. 1982. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
    • Chester, J. M. 1977. Factors influencing human-grizzly bear interactions in a backcountry setting. Proc. Inter. Bear Res. and Manage. 4.
    • Chester, J. M. 1980. Factors influencing human-grizzly bear interactions in a backcountry setting. Pp. 351-357 in C. J. Martinka and K. L. McArthur, eds. Bears their biology and management. Bear BioI. Assoc. Conf. Ser. 3.
    • Christensen, A. G. 1986. Cumulative effects analysis: origins, acceptance, and value to grizzly bear management. Pp. 213-216 in G. P. Contreras, and K. E. Evans, comps., Proc. Grizzly Bear Habitat Symp., USDA For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207, Ogden, UT. 252 pp.
    • Claar, J. J., R. W. Klaver, and C. Servheen. 1981. Grizzly bear/livestock relationships: a management challenge on the Flathead Indian Reservation. Wildlife/livestock Relationships Symposium, April 20-22, 1981, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. 9 pp.
    • Claar, J. J., R. W. Klaver, and C. Servheen. 1983. Grizzly bear management on the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana. Pp. 203-208 in P. Zager, ed., Bears -- their biology and management. Proc. Sixth International Conf. on Grizzly Bear Research and Management, Grand Canyon, AZ.
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    • Craighead, F.C., Jr., J.J. Craighead, and R.S. Davies. 1963. Radiotrackingof grizzly bears. pp. 133-148 in Biotelemetry. Pergamon Press.
    • Craighead, J. J., and F. C. Craighead. 1971. Grizzly bear - man relationships in Yellowstone National Park. University of Montana, Missoula. 63 pp.
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    • Craighead, J. J., and J. Sumner. 1973. Grizzly bear habitat survey in the Scapegoat Wilderness, Montana. Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, University of Montana, Missoula. 49 pp.
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    • Reinhart, D. 1990. Grizzly bear habitat use of the Cooke City, Montana area. USDI National Park Service Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team Rep. 34 pp.
    • Reinhart, D. 1990. Grizzly bear habitat use on cutthroat trout spawning streams in tributaries of Yellowstone Lake. M.S. thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman. 128 pp.
    • Riggs, R. A. 1978. Habitat ecology of grizzly bears in the North Fork Flathead River drainage of Glacier National Park. Pp. 53-54 in K. L. McArthur, comp., 1977 Annual Research Summary. Unpubl. Rep., USDI National Park Service, Glacier National Park. 62 pp.
    • Riley, S. J., K. Aune, R. D. Mace and M. Madel. 1992. Translocation of nuisance grizzly bears in the northwestern Montana. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 9:in press.
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    • Schneider, B. 1977. Where the grizzly walks. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula. 191 pp.
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