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Northern Leopard Frog - Lithobates pipiens
Other Names:  Rana pipiens

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Species of Concern

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S1,S4
* (see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS: SENSITIVE
BLM: SENSITIVE
FWP Conservation Tier: 1


 

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Copyright by Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network
State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Populations within the mountains of western Montana are a Species of Concern with a state rank of S1. Populations on the Great Plains have a state rank of S4 and are not a Species of Concern.
  • Details on Status Ranking and Review
    Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) Conservation Status Review
    Review Date = 03/22/2009
    View State Conservation Rank Criteria
    Population Size

    ScoreU - Unknown

    CommentUnknown.

    Range Extent

    ScoreG - 200,000-2,500,000 km squared (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)

    Comment274292 square kilometers based on Natural Heritage Program range maps

    Area of Occupancy

    ScoreH - >20,000 km squared (greater than 5,000,000 acres)

    Comment62083 square kilometers based on GAP predicted model.

    Long-term Trend

    ScoreD - Moderate Decline (decline of 25-50%)

    CommentMany riparian habitats (prairie stream pool habitats) have been lost.

    Short-term Trend

    ScoreE - Stable. Population, range, area occupied, and/or number or condition of occurrences unchanged or remaining within ±10% fluctuation

    CommentAppear to be stable based on surveys conducted by Reichel, Hendricks, Werner, and Maxell between 1994 and 2008.

    Threats

    ScoreF - Widespread, low-severity threat. Threat is of low severity but affects (or would affect) most or a significant portion of the population or area.

    CommentPathogens that are known to have been associated with declines in this species elsewhere have recently been documented in Montana and these pathogens may interact with other stressors such as pesticides to cause die-offs.

    SeverityLow - Low but nontrivial reduction of species population or reversible degradation or reduction of habitat in area affected, with recovery expected in 10-50 years.

    CommentSpecies' life history allows them to respond relatively quickly when appropriate habitats are present

    ScopeModerate - 20-60% of total population or area affected

    Comment>20% of riparian habitats on Great Plains are being impacted by grazing, drought, and energy development

    ImmediacyModerate - Threat is likely to be operational within 2-5 years.

    CommentOngoing

    Intrinsic Vulnerability

    ScoreC - Not Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance; or species has high dispersal capability such that extirpated populations soon become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans).

    Comment

    Environmental Specificity

    ScoreB - Narrow. Specialist. Specific habitat(s) or other abiotic and/or biotic factors (see above) are used or required by the Element, but these key requirements are common and within the generalized range of the species within the area of interest.

    CommentSpecies generally relies on riparian areas and standing waters with emergent vegetation close to riparian areas that allow for dispersal.

 
General Description
The backs of adult Northern Leopard Frogs and juveniles are a green or brown base color (rarely light bluish) covered with large, dark oval spots, regular in outline, each of which is surrounded by a lighter halo or border. Ventral color is white to cream, with some pinkish patches on the feet. The skin is smooth, the dorsolateral folds are not inset toward the midline on the rump, the tympanum (eardrum) usually lacks a distinct light spot, and the hind toes have extensive webbing. Snout-vent length (SVL) is 1.8 to 11.0 centimeters. The breeding call of males is a snoring sound lasting 2 to 3 seconds followed by a series of 2 to 3 stuttering croaks or chuckles.

Larvae (tadpoles) are dark brown to olive or gray on the back with a flecking of light gold and black, more concentrated on the sides, and then merging with a silvery-white or transparent belly. Tail length is less than 1.5 times the body length. The dorsal tail fin begins anterior to the tail musculature when viewed from the side. The anus is on the right side in front of the fin, not on the midline. The eyes fall within the outline of the head when viewed from above. Lateral oral papillae are strongly indented toward the corners of the mouth, and the lower mandible is noticeably thicker than the upper. The total length of tadpoles is 5.5 to 10.0 centimeters. The eggs are black above and white below, and are laid in large (orange- to grapefruit-sized) somewhat flattened globular masses; total diameter of individual eggs (including the two jelly layers) is less than 6.0 millimeters. Masses are usually attached to submerged vegetation.

Diagnostic Characteristics
Adult and juvenile Northern Leopard Frogs differ from other Montana ranids by the dorsal spotting of dark ovals with light halos, rather than irregular dark patches with light center spots (Columbia Spotted Frog) or general absence of spotting (American Bullfrog); the presence of a lateral yellowish stripe on the side of the snout (absent in American Bullfrog); and lack of reddish coloration on the belly and undersides of the legs (present in Columbia Spotted Frog).

Northern Leopard Frog tadpoles have tails less than twice the length of the body, and lack the large, black flecks on the body and the metallic coppery sheen on the belly, all of which are present in Columbia Spotted Frog tadpoles. American Bullfrog tadpoles have bright to creamy-yellow bellies and perfectly round, black spots on the back and tail. Columbia Spotted Frog eggs are twice the size of Northern Leopard Frog eggs because of the thicker jelly layers, and Columbia Spotted Frog egg masses tend to be at or near the water's surface and not attached to vegetation. American Bullfrog egg masses are spread out over the surface of the water or bottom of a pond rather than in a globular mass typical of Northern Leopard Frog egg masses. In Montana, extant populations of Northern Leopard Frog overlap Columbia Spotted Frogs and American Bullfrogs in very few locations. Northern Leopard Frogs are present mostly across the prairies of the eastern two-thirds of the state; Columbia Spotted Frogs and most American Bullfrog populations are in the mountainous western third.

General Distribution
Montana Range



Western Hemisphere Range

 


Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 2181

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)



Migration
No Northern Leopard Frog information is available for Montana. In other locations, Northern Leopard Frogs usually remain in relatively small seasonal home ranges, but may range several hundred meters or more between seasons in the upper Midwest. In Michigan, average nightly movement during rain was 36 meters, and as much as 800 meters. Individuals in Colorado have been documented moving at least 3 kilometers between years, and 8 kilometers between-year movements have been reported in the Cypress Hills, Alberta; young-of-the-year moved 2.1 kilometers between natal and breeding ponds in the Cypress Hills (Wagner 1997, Hammerson 1999).

Habitat
Habitats used by Northern Leopard Frog in Montana are similar to those reported for other regions, and include low elevation and valley bottom ponds, spillway ponds, beaver ponds, stock reservoirs, lakes, creeks, pools in intermittent streams, warm water springs, potholes, and marshes (Brunson and Demaree 1951, Mosimann and Rabb 1952, Black 1969, Miller 1978, Dood 1980, Reichel 1995, Hendricks and Reichel 1996, Hendricks 1999). There is no evidence that this species in Montana has ever occupied high elevation wetlands, in contrast to Wyoming and Colorado (Baxter and Stone 1985, Hammerson 1999).

More specifically, Northern Leopard Frogs require a mosaic of habitats to meet annual requirements of all life stages. Generally separate sites are used for breeding and overwintering, but this may occur in the same pond in some cases. They occupy a variety of wetland habitats of relatively fresh water with moderate salinity, including springs, slow streams, marshes, bogs, ponds, canals, flood plains, beaver ponds, reservoirs, and lakes, usually in permanent water with rooted aquatic vegetation. Habitats are often with few or no trees, but in Alberta and Colorado forested areas may be used. In summer, adults and juveniles commonly feed in open or semi-open wet meadows and fields with shorter vegetation, usually near the margins of water bodies, and seek cover underwater; taller, denser vegetation seems to be avoided.

Eggs are laid and larvae usually develop in shallow warm and still water, generally in areas well exposed to sunlight. Generally eggs are attached to vegetation just below the surface of the water. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992). During winter, Northern Leopard Frogs usually are found inactive underwater on the bottom of deeper streams and ponds or springs that do not freeze to the bottom and are well oxygenated, sometimes under bottom rubble and debris, in water as deep as 85 centimeters (Baxter and Stone 1985, Nussbaum et al. 1983, Russell and Bauer 1993, Wagner 1997, Hammerson 1999).

Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
  • Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
    How Associations Were Made
    We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
    1. Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
    2. Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
    3. Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
    4. Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
    Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.  In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.  However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if point observations were associated with that system.  High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.  The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.  If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at bmaxell@mt.gov or (406) 444-3655.

    Suggested Uses and Limitations
    Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.  These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.  Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.  Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.  Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).  Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.

    Literature Cited
    • Adams, R.A.  2003.  Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation.  Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  289 p.
    • Dobkin, D. S.  1992.  Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34.  Missoula, MT.
    • Foresman, K.R.  2001.  The wild mammals of Montana.  Special Publication No. 12.  Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists.  278 p.
    • Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998.  Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates.  Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.  1302 p.
    • Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young.  1999.  Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32.  72 p.
    • Maxell, B.A.  2000.  Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species.  Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1.  Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana.  161 p.
    • Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath.  2004.  Amphibians and reptiles of Montana.  Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.

Food Habits
Metamorphosed frogs eat various small invertebrates, including various insects, spiders, leeches, and snails obtained along the water's edge or in nearby meadows or fields. They rarely eat small vertebrates such as small frogs, fish, birds, and snakes, and are sometimes cannibalistic (Nussbaum et al. 1983, Russell and Bauer 1993, Wagner 1997). Larvae eat algae, plant tissue, organic debris, and probably some small invertebrates. In Montana, adults have been documented feeding on 10 orders of insects, spiders, mites, harvestmen, centipedes, millipedes, snails, and newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Miller 1978), but larval food habits have not been described.

Ecology
Northern Leopard Frogs are active during the day and night. The active period extends from March to November in Colorado (Hammerson 1999). In Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, adults emerge in March or April (Nussbaum et al. 1983, Baxter and Stone 1985, Russell and Bauer 1993) when water temperatures exceed 10 degrees C. In Montana, the active period of adults is reported to extend from mid-March to early October (Brunson and Demaree 1951, Roedel and Hendricks 1998, Hendricks 1999). In all cases, activity begins when ice melts. Predators of adults and juveniles include Great Blue Heron, Burrowing Owl, snakes (including gartersnakes), some mammalian carnivores, and game fish. Tadpole predators include Pied-billed Grebe, Tiger Salamander, gartersnakes, and American Bullfrog tadpoles (Nussbaum et al. 1983, Russell and Bauer 1993, Hammerson 1999). Predators in Montana have not been reported.

R. pipiens apparently out-competed R. pretiosa at low elevations in Montana (Black 1969). Differential tadpole mortality may be the primary mechanism of displacement of R. pretiosa by R. pipiens (Dumas 1966).

Reproductive Characteristics
Information on reproduction in Montana is limited, and no detailed studies of the reproductive biology of any population have been conducted. Timing appears variable, and depends on the year and location. Calling males have been reported in April and May. Near Tiber Reservoir, in Toole and Liberty counties, females have been collected with relatively undeveloped eggs in mid-June and moderately developed to fully developed eggs in early and late July; recently transformed juveniles also were noted in late July (Mosimann and Rabb 1952). Eggs and tadpoles have been reported at breeding sites across eastern Montana during early April to late July, with a peak in May and June; sometimes tadpoles are observed in August and September (Reichel 1995, Hendricks and Reichel 1996, Hendricks 1999, Hossack et al. 2003). Recently metamorphosed juveniles with small tail stubs measured 2.6 to 3.4 centimeters snout-vent length.

In general, males gather at breeding sites of shallow, quiet water in spring and vocalize on warm sunny days (water temperatures of 14 to 23 degrees C.) while floating at the surface of the water. In favorable habitat, 20 to 25 or more males may gather in a 20 square meter area. Females begin laying eggs a few days after calling begins. The time of egg deposition varies with latitude and elevation. Egg deposition occurs typically in April in southern Quebec, New York, and the Great Lakes region, late April to late May farther north in Manitoba and Nova Scotia (Gilbert et al. 1994). In Colorado, eggs are laid mainly in late March or by mid-April at low elevations, and in May in the mountains (Corn and Livo 1989, Hammerson 1999). Breeding often peaks when water temperatures reach about 10 C. At a particular site, egg deposition generally occurs within a span of about 10 days. Egg masses include several hundred to several thousand ova; the clutch size of 68 Colorado egg masses was 645 to 6272 eggs (Corn and Livo 1989). The density of egg masses often reaches a few hundred per hectare in favorable habitat, sometimes more than 1000 per hectare, but is usually less than 100 in Colorado.

Eggs hatch in about 1 to 2 weeks; the larval (tadpole) period is about 10 to 12 weeks (58 to 105 days). Hatching may occur over several weeks at a single site. Recently metamorphosed juveniles appear in late June and early July at lower elevations, and in mid-July to September at higher elevations (Hammerson 1999). Size at metamorphosis is 2.1 to 3.6 centimeters snout-vent length. Aquatic larvae usually metamorphose in summer, but they may overwinter as tadpoles in some areas (Baxter and Stone 1985). Females are sexually mature usually in two years in most areas, three years in high elevation populations. Breeding males in Colorado are usually more than 5.0 centimeters snout-vent length, and breeding females more than 6.0 centimeters.

Management
No special management needs are currently recognized for populations in eastern Montana. However, at permanent and semi-permanent water bodies (reservoirs and stock ponds) where breeding has been observed, portions of shorelines where emergent vegetation is present or might develop could be fenced to exclude access by livestock and thereby protect breeding adults, eggs and tadpoles from trampling and the removal of emergent cover by livestock. Another option would be the creation of ponds designed for use by prairie amphibians as breeding sites, with the perimeter surrounded by fencing to prevent access by livestock. Game fish should not be introduced to any of these ponds, nor should chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides be used within 100 meters of the shoreline. All breeding sites west of the Continental Divide should be protected from livestock, and organic and chemical (pesticide and herbicide) contamination. American Bullfrogs should not be introduced to these sites. Care should be taken to avoid introducing parasites and fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens when monitoring these sites (see suggestions in Maxell 2000, Maxell et al. 2003). Any populations discovered in the western region should be reported to the Native Species Biologist of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks or the Program Zoologist of the Montana Natural Heritage Program.

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    • Baxter, G. T. and M. D. Stone. 1985. Amphibians and reptiles of Wyoming. Second edition. Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Cheyenne, WY. 137 p.
    • Black, J.H. 1969. The frog genus Rana in Montana. Northwest Science 43(4): 191-195.
    • Brunson, R. B. and H. A. Demaree, Jr. 1951. The herpetology of the Mission Mountains, Montana. Copeia (4):306-308.
    • Corn, P.S. and L.J. Livo. 1989. Leopard frog and wood frog reproduction in Colorado and Wyoming. Northwestern Naturalist 70:1-9.
    • Dood, A. R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 p.
    • Dumas, P.C. 1966. Studies of the Rana species complex in the Pacific Northwest. Copeia 1966(1): 60-74.
    • Gilbert, M., R. Leclair, Jr. and R. Fortin. 1994. Reproduction of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in floodplain habitat in the Richelieu River, P. Quebec, Canada. Journal of Herpetology 28: 465-470.
    • Hammerson, G. A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. University Press of Colorado & Colorado Division of Wildlife. Denver, CO. 484 p.
    • Hendricks, P. 1999. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Bureau of Land Management Miles City District, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 80 p.
    • Hendricks, P. and J. D. Reichel. 1996. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland District, Custer National Forest: 1995. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 79 p.
    • Hossack, B., D. Pilliod, and S. Corn. 2003. Amphibian survey of Medicine Lake National Wildlife Complex: 2001-2002. USGS Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Missoula, Montana. 19 p.
    • Karns, D. R. 1992. Effects of acidic bog habitats on amphibian reproduction in a northern Minnesota peatland. Journal of Herpetology 26:401-412.
    • Maxell, B. A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to USFS Region 1, Order Number 43-0343-0-0224. University of Montana, Wildlife Biology Program. Missoula, MT. 161 p.
    • Maxell, B. A., J. K. Werner, P. Hendricks and D. L. Flath. 2003. Herpetology in Montana: a history, status summary, checklists, dichotomous keys, accounts for native, potentially native, and exotic species, and indexed bibliography. Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Northwest Fauna Number 5. Olympia, WA. 135 p.
    • Miller, J. D. 1978. Observations on the diets of Rana pretiosa, Rana pipiens, and Bufo boreas from western Montana. Northwest Science 52(3): 243-249.
    • Mosimann, J.E. and G.B. Rabb. 1952. The herpetology of Tiber Reservoir Area, Montana. Copeia (1): 23-27.
    • Nussbaum, R. A., E. D. Brodie, Jr., and R. M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press. Moscow, ID. 332 p.
    • Reichel, J. D. 1995. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Sioux District of the Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 75 p.
    • Roedel, M.D. and P. Hendricks. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on the Bureau of Land Management Lewistown District: 1995-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 53 p.
    • Russell, A. P. and A. M. Bauer. 1993. The amphibians and reptiles of Alberta. University of Calgary Press. Calgary, Alberta. 264 p.
    • Wagner, G. 1997. Status of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in Alberta. Alberta Wildlife Status Report Number 9. 34 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • [DCC] Decker Coal Company. 1998. 1997 Consolidated annual progress report. Decker Coal Company West, North and East Pits. Decker, MT.
    • [EI] Econ Incorporated. 1984. Terrestrial wildlife inventory for the Lame Jones and Ismay coal lease tracts. Econ Incorporated. Helena, MT.
    • [OEA] Olson Elliot and Associates Research. 1985. 1983-1984 Wildlife monitoring report for the CX Ranch project. Olson Elliot and Associates Research. Helena, MT.
    • [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998a. Big Sky Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
    • [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998b. Spring Creek Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
    • [USDAFS] USDA Forest Service. 1999. Update of U.S. Forest Service Northern Region Sensitive Species list. 12 March, 1999. Region 1 U.S. Forest Service Supervisors Office, Missoula, MT. 20 p.
    • [VTNWI] VTN Wyoming Incorporated. No Date. Second year's analysis of terrestrial wildlife on proposed mine access and railroad routes in southern Montana and northern Wyoming, March 1979 - February 1980. VTN Wyoming Incorporated. Sheridan, WY. 62 p.
    • [WESCO] Western Ecological Services Company. 1983a. Wildlife inventory of the Knowlton known recoverable coal resource area, Montana. Western Ecological Services Company, Novato, CA. 107 p.
    • [WESCO] Western Ecological Services Company. 1983b. Wildlife inventory of the Southwest Circle known recoverable coal resource area, Montana. Western Ecological Services Company, Novato, CA. 131 p.
    • [WESTECH] Western Technology and Engineering Incorporated. 1991. Update on the wildlife resources of the Little Rocky Mountains environmental study area. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT.
    • [WESTECH] Western Technology and Engineering Incorporated. 1998. Wildlife monitoring Absaloka Mine area 1997. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT.
    • [WWPC] Washington Water Power Company. 1995. 1994 wildlife report Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge Reservoirs. Washington Water Power Company. Spokane, WA.
    • Adama, D.B., M.A. Beaucher, and K. Lansley. 2002. Northern Leopard frogs in British Columbia--towards recovery. Northwestern Naturalist 83:62.
    • Allen, J.A. 1874. Notes on the natural history of portions of Dakota and Montana Territories, being the substance of a report to the Secretary of War on the collections made by the North Pacific Railroad Expedition of 1873, General D.S. Stanley, Commander. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 17: 33-85. Pages 68-70.
    • Allran, J.W. and W.H. Karasov. 2000. Effects of atrazine and nitrate on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) larvae exposed in the laboratory from posthatch through metamorphosis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(11): 2850-2855.
    • Amish, S.J. 2006. Ecosystem engineering: beaver and the population structure of Columbia spotted frogs in western Montana. M.S. Thesis. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 96 p.
    • Anderson, M.E. 1977. Aspects of the ecology of two sympatric species of Thamnophis and heavy metal accumulation with the species. M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula. 147 pp.
    • Ankley, G.T., J.E. Tietge, D.L. DeFoe, K.M. Jensen, G.W. Holcombe, E.J. Durhan, and S.A. Diamond. 1998. Effects of ultraviolet light and methoprene on survival and development of Rana pipiens. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17: 2530-2542.
    • Ankley, G.T., J.E. Tietge, G.W. Holcombe, D.L. DeFoe, S.A. Diamond, K.M. Jensen, and S.J. Degitz. 2000. Effects of laboratory ultraviolet radaition and natural sunlight on survival and development of Rana pipiens. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 1092-1
    • Ankley, G.T., S.A. Diamond, J.E. Tietge, G.W. Holcombe, K.M. Jensen, D.L. DeFoe, and R. Peterson. 2002. Assessment of the risk of solar ultraviolet radiation to amphibians. I. dose-dependent induction of hindlimb malformations in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Environmental Science and Technology 36(13): 2853-2858.
    • Atkinson, E.C. and M.L. Atkinson. 2004. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland and Sioux of the Custer National Forest with special emphasis on the Three-Mile Stewardship Area:2002. Marmot's Edge Conservation. 22 p.
    • Bailey, M. 2004. Northern leopard frogs in a golf course water hazard. Blue Jay 62(1):43-45.
    • Bauer, D. 1997. 1997 wildlife study Savage Mine report. Knife River Corporation, Savage Mine. Richland County, MT.
    • Baxter, G.T. 1952a. Notes on growth and the reproductive cycle of the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) Schreber, in southern Wyoming. Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science 4: 91.
    • Beauregard, N. and R. Leclair. 1988. Multivariate analysis of the summe habitat structure of Rana pipiens Schreber, in Lac Saint Pierre (Quebec a Trois Riviere, Quebec, Canada). Pages 129-143 R.C. Szaro, K.E. Severson, and D.R. Patton (eds.), Managemen
    • Beiswenger, R.E. 1988. Integrating anuran amphibian species into environmental assessment programs. Pages 159-165 in R.C. Szaro, K.E. Severson, and D.R. Patton, technical coordinators. Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America. General Technical Report RM-166. U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    • Bergeron, D.J. 1978a. Terrestrial wildlife survey Divide Mine area, Montana 1977-1978. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
    • Bergeron, D.J. 1978b. Terrestrial wildlife survey P-M Mine area, Montana 1977-1978. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
    • Bergeron, D.J. 1979. Terrestrial wildlife survey, Coal Creek Mine area, Montana 1977-1978. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
    • Bernstein, G.S. 1952. Sperm aggutination in the egg jelly of the frogs Rana pipiens, Scherber and R. clamitans, Latreille. Biology Bulletin 103:285.
    • Berrill, M., S. Bertram, A. Wilson, S. Louis, D. Brigham, and C. Stromberg. 1993. Lethan and sublethal impacts of pyrethroid insecticides on amphibian embryos and tadpoles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12:525-539.
    • Berrill, M., S. Bertram, L. McGillivray, M. Kolohon, and B. Pauli. 1994. Effects of low concentrations of forest-use pesticides on frog embyos and tadpoles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13(4): 657-664.
    • Black, J.H. 1967b. A blue leopard frog from Montana. Herpetologica 23(4): 314-315.
    • BLM. 1982b. Moorhead baseline inventory - wildlife. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City District Office. Miles City, MT. 29 pp.
    • Blouin, M. 2001. Microsatellite DNA testing of Columbia spotted frog toe samples. Unpublished report. On file with: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 1401 Gekeler Lane, La Grande, OR 97850.
    • Bodley, K.T. 2003. The effects of the presence of dragonfly predators on the morphology of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris). Undergraduate Honors Thesis. Carroll College, Helena, MT. 13 p.
    • Bos, D.H. 2000. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris). M.S. Thesis. Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University. Provo, Utah. 42 p.
    • Bos, D.H. and J.W. Sites, Jr. 2001. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris; Amphibia, Ranidae). Molecular Ecology 10:1499-1513.
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Northern Leopard Frog — Lithobates pipiens.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  Retrieved on July 30, 2014, from http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/detail_AAABH01170.aspx
 
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