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Columbia Spotted Frog -
Native Species Global Rank
State Rank Reason below)
Agency Status USFWS
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State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Species is apparently secure and not at risk of extirpation or facing significant threats in all or most of its range.
Details on Status Ranking and Review
Columbia Spotted Frog ( Rana luteiventris) Conservation Status Review
Review Date = 05/03/2018
Score F - 20,000-200,000 km squared (about 8,000-80,000 square miles)
Comment166,808 square Kilometers from Natural Heritage Program range maps Long-term Trend
Score E - Relatively Stable (±25% change)
CommentSince European arrival, riparian habitat has been altered and lost but it is unlikely that populations have changed significantly (+/- 25%) Short-term Trend
Score E - Stable. Population, range, area occupied, and/or number or condition of occurrences unchanged or remaining within ±10% fluctuation
CommentPopulations appear stable based on surveys conducted by Reichel, Hendricks, Werner, and Maxell between 1994 and 2008. Threats
Score G - Slightly threatened. Threats, while recognizable, are of low severity, or affecting only a small portion of the population or area.
CommentInvasive Bull Frogs are a threat to lower elevation populations in the Bitterroot and Clark Fork Drainages.
Severity Low - Low but nontrivial reduction of species population or reversible degradation or reduction of habitat in area affected, with recovery expected in 10-50 years.
CommentThreat is resulting in loss of population in affected areas which represent a small but non-trivial portion of the statewide population
Scope Low - 5-20% of total population or area affected
CommentLess that 20% of range likely to be affected
Immediacy High - Threat is operational (happening now) or imminent (within a year).
CommentOngoing and increasing Intrinsic Vulnerability
Score B - Moderately Vulnerable. Species exhibits moderate age of maturity, frequency of reproduction, and/or fecundity such that populations generally tend to recover from decreases in abundance over a period of several years (on the order of 5-20 years or 2-5 generations); or species has moderate dispersal capability such that extirpated populations generally become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans).
CommentThis species has high fecundity, a moderate age of maturity, and recruitment can be low. Environmental Specificity
Score B - Narrow. Specialist. Specific habitat(s) or other abiotic and/or biotic factors (see above) are used or required by the Element, but these key requirements are common and within the generalized range of the species within the area of interest.
CommentSpecies generally relies on riparian areas and standing waters with emergent vegetation as well as suitable foraging and dispersal habitat Raw Conservation Status Score
3.5 + 0 (geographic distribution) + 0 (environmental specificity) + 0 (short-term trend) + 0.75 (threats) = 4.25
Eggs are laid in a single grapefruit sized globular mass and are usually laid communally with a few to more than a hundred other egg masses (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Egg masses contain from 308 to 2,403 eggs per mass (X = 983, SD = 348, N=30 for completely counted egg masses at 8 low elevation sites in northwest Montana) (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Each ovum is black above and laterally, cream to white at the very bottom, and is surrounded by two jelly layers (Svihla 1935, Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Ovum diameters are 2-3 mm (Svihla 1935, Morris and Tanner 1969; Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Total egg diameters, including the jelly layers, are usually 10-12 mm, but may vary from 8 to 21 mm (Svihla 1935, Turner 1958a, Morris and Tanner 1969, Bryce Maxell, personal observation). LARVAE: Body and tail musculature are mottled with light and dark brown spots, black spots, and flecks of metallic gold on a light tan to dark brown background. The ventral body surface is pale yellow and often has a metallic copper sheen toward the edges (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). The tail is about twice the length of the body, and the dorsal and ventral tail fins are clear to yellowish with flecks of black and metallic gold. Eyes are located on the top of the head. Total length of 7-90 mm (Svihla 1935, Wishard 1977, Maxell et al. 2009). JUVENILES AND ADULTS: A white to yellowish stripe extends from the tip of the snout laterally underneath the eye to just above the front limb. Dorsal base color varies from light tan to reddish or dark green with small black spots that are irregular in outline and usually have a light spot in their center (Turner 1959b). At higher elevations large adults are often a reddish-brown base color dorsally. Ventral color is white to cream in all individuals, but larger animals are usually salmon in color on their thighs and in some individuals the salmon color extends from the feet to the middle of the belly with patches on the throat as well (Turner 1959b, Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Snout-vent length (SVL) of 17-90 mm (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). VOICE: Calls of males are a series of hollow, pulsing clicks (Werner et al. 2004). Typical outer limits for hearing individuals is 20 meters (approximately 65 feet) (Bryce Maxell, personal observation).
The bright pigment on the underside of the legs distinguishes adults of this species from all other amphibians in Montana. Adults of the Northern Leopard Frog (
) have large, oval shaped, black spots that are regular in outline and are surrounded with a white halo on their dorsal surface. Adults of the American Bullfrog (
) lack the white to yellowish stripe on the lateral portion of the snout, have tympanums that are the same size or larger than their eye, and have a fold of skin extending from the back of their eye over their tympanum and down to their front leg (Maxell et al. 2009).
Larvae of the Northern Leopard Frog have tails that are less than twice their body length, do not have large flecks of black on their body or tail, and lack a metallic copper sheen on the lateral edges of their ventral surfaces. Larvae of the American Bullfrog have a bright to creamy yellow ventral surface, have perfectly round black dots on their dorsal surface and tail musculature, and attain much larger sizes (Maxell et al. 2009).
Northern Leopard Frog egg diameters are approximately one-half those of Columbia Spotted Frog because their jelly envelopes are much smaller (see species descriptions), and their egg masses are usually attached underwater (Ross et al. 1994b). American Bullfrog eggs are laid in the middle of the summer and are spread out in a thin layer over the surface or bottom of a pond rather than a globular mass. See sections on distribution to identify possible regions of co-occurrence of Columbia Spotted Frog and Northern Leopard Frog or American Bullfrog.
Western Hemisphere Range
Based on allozyme and morphological evidence the Columbia Spotted Frog,
Rana luteiventris, is currently recognized as a distinct species with a more or less continuous distribution along the Northern Rocky Mountains from the southwestern Yukon to central Idaho. Isolated populations are also located in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, and at isolated springs and mountain tops in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Oregon (Green et al. 1996, Green et al. 1997, Reaser 2000). However, the species’ taxonomy may require future division into three or more subspecies or weakly differentiated full species to adequately represent the genetic differentiation of glacial relict populations that are isolated in several portions of Utah and Nevada, (Green et al. 1997, David Bos, Brigham Young University, personal communication). If future taxonomic subdivisions are made all populations north of south-central Idaho would likely be the same species or subspecies (Green et al. 1997). Across their range the Columbia Spotted Frog are found at elevations up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) (Stebbins 2003). Maximum elevation: 2,973 m (9,755 ft) in Park County (Aimee and Grove Wyrick; MTNHP 2022).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
The Columbia Spotted Frog are highly aquatic and are regularly found at water's edge in or near forest openings. Wetlands at or near treeline are also used, but populations are uncommon in large, open intermountain valleys. They can be found on grassy/swampy banks of mountain water bodies (Black 1969a, Franz 1971), although they may avoid dense/tall grass (Miller 1978). Adults feed mainly in riparian habitat, occasionally in bordering meadow/woods, while juveniles will forage farther from water (Miller 1978).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system,
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at:
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
Adults feed on a variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates (Moore and Strickland 1955, Turner 1959b, Miller 1978) but may commonly cannibalize smaller individuals as well (Pilliod 1999). In western Montana, adults have been documented mainly foraging on ground insects such as coleoptera (35%), hymenoptera (22%), arachnid (15%); and others less than 10% (Miller 1978). However, prey is based mainly on availability (Whitaker et al. 1983, Turner 1959c, Moore and Strickland 1955). Tadpoles feed on a variety of algae as well as detritus, bacteria, and the remains of other dead tadpoles (Burke 1933, Morris and Tanner 1969). In Yellowstone, larvae have been documented eating vegetation from the families
Callitriche and Spirogyra (Turner 1959c).
This species is closely restricted to water (Black 1969a, Carpenter 1953b) and usually found within 15 meters of shore (Miller 1978). Young and adult Columbia Spotted Frog commonly bask and forage outside the water several meters from the water’s edge (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Adults overwinter underwater in larger permanent water bodies or in springs or streams (Turner 1960, Patla 1997a) and may move throughout the winter to areas of higher oxygen concentration (Evelyn Bull, USFS Pacific Northwest Research Station, personal communication). Individuals may aestivate in mud under rocks in extremely dry conditions (Ross et al. 1999). Adults typically do not move more than 50 meters within a season (Hollenbeck 1974, Patla 1997a) but may move up to 1.5 kilometers to a seasonal breeding, foraging, or overwintering site (Engle 2000) and are known to disperse up to 6 or 7 kilometers (Reaser 1996a, Janice Engle, Boise State University, personal communication, Bryce Maxell, personal observation).
Reproduction mainly takes place in lakes, ponds (temporary and permanent), springs, and occasionally backwaters or beaver ponds in streams (Turner 1958a). Breeding occurs from mid-March to mid-June depending on snow melt, temperature, and elevation (Turner 1958a, Schaub and Larsen 1978, Bryce Maxell, personal observation). Females deposit egg masses communally in a particular pond, often in the same location. These locations are at the pond margin in shallow waters, usually no more than 10-15 cm deep with emergent vegetation (usually sedges), but egg masses are Eggs are in clusters of 300 to 800 and not usually attached to vegetation (Bryce Maxell, personal observation) and hatch in 5 to 21 days (Turner 1958a, Maxell et al. 2009). Metamorphosis occurs about 8 to 16 weeks during mid-summer to late fall depending on elevation and water and air temperatures (Turner 1958a, Morris and Tanner 1969, Bryce Maxell, personal observation).
Females may breed in alternate years (Turner 1958a). In Yellowstone, this species does not reach reproductive maturity until year 4 (male), year 5-6 (female) (Turner 1960). Males occasionally call, but the call is faint; burst of 4 to 30 short crocks at a rate of 3 to 4 per second, with bursts separate by 3 seconds (Turner 1958a).
The following was taken from the Status and Conservation section for the Columbia Spotted Frog account in
Maxell et al. 2009
The Columbia Spotted Frog are the most common frog in the mountains and mountain valleys of western Montana and can be expected to be found in most water bodies that contain emergent vegetation and do not have fish or American Bullfrogs. However, their presence and/or status in the Big Snowy, Highwood, and Bighorn Mountains is uncertain. Risk factors relevant to the viability of populations of this species in Montana are likely to include grazing, fire and fire management activities, nonindigenous species and their management, development of water impoundments, and habitat fragmentation, all as described above. Individual studies that specifically identify risk factors or other issues relevant to the conservation of Columbia Spotted Frogs include the following. (1) In 1993, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service found that isolated “distinct population segments” of Columbia Spotted Frogs (at the time they were still known as Spotted Frog
) throughout Utah, Nevada and southern Idaho were warranted for listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, but their listing was precluded by other species with higher listing priorities (USFWS 1993). Several mechanisms of decline have been proposed for the isolated populations of Columbia Spotted Frogs in Utah, Nevada, and southern Idaho (Koch et al. 1996). Turner (1962a) reported on the decline of Columbia Spotted Frogs in Nevada in the early and mid-1900s because of intensive water utilization for irrigation, and the introduction of bass and American Bullfrogs. Thirty-five years later Reaser (1996b, 1997, 2000) reported on further population declines in Nevada and attributed declines to alteration of natural hydrologic regimes for irrigation and livestock watering, livestock grazing, loss of beaver, and introduction of exotic American Bullfrogs and warm- and cold-water fishes. Hovingh (1993) noted that the following as factors that have contributed to the decline of Columbia Spotted Frog populations in the Wasatch Mountains and Bonneville basin in Utah: (a) habitat loss and fragmentation by highways, dams, reservoirs, urbanization, and the loss of natural flood disturbances because of water diversions and the channeling of rivers; (b) livestock grazing in riparian and wetland habitats; and (c) introduction of Raccoons (
), American Bullfrogs, crayfish, bass, and trout. For a population inhabiting an isolated set of springs in Utah, Cuellar (1994) reported that all ponds used by cattle had dark reddish water as a result of dung eutrophication, and lacked any aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, or frogs. Ross et al. (1999) found crushed individuals at the bottom of the hoof prints of cattle and reported that a decline in habitat appeared to be at least in part due to cattle grazing in the riparian areas. The construction of a dam on the Provo River in north central Utah extirpated many populations because of flooding of habitats (Wilkinson 1996). Populations in southwest Idaho are threatened by habitat loss as a result of livestock grazing impacts on riparian areas (Munger in Koch et al. 1996). It is likely that many of the known and postulated mechanisms of decline for the isolated southern populations pose threats to the viability of populations of Columbia Spotted Frogs in Montana. (2) Exotic warm- and cold-water fish have been implicated in the declines and losses of local Columbia Spotted Frog populations in Montana, Oregon, and Idaho. In Glacier National Park, Marnell (1997) reported that fish were found within the same general wetland complexes in only 16 of 68 (23%) of the sites where frogs were found. Furthermore, at sites where Columbia Spotted Frogs were found with fish, they were almost always found in satellite pools isolated from the fish or in densely vegetated sloughs. With a few exceptions this same general pattern of cooccurrence only where isolated pools, dense vegetation, or some other physical barrier from the fish exists has been observed in the Bitterroot and Cabinet Mountains in Montana (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). On the Palouse Prairie in northern Idaho, Monello and Wright (1999) found Columbia Spotted Frogs to be excluded from all water bodies containing fish, including those containing goldfish. Similarly, although Columbia Spotted Frogs cooccurred with fish at 69% of 55 lakes surveyed in the Big Horn Crags in central Idaho, frogs only successfully reproduced at 1 (2%) of these lakes (Pilliod et al. in Koch et al. 1996). Thus, stocked lakes in this region appeared to be population “sinks” and persistence in a basin may be dependent on the number and location of stocked sites (Pilliod et al. in Koch et al. 1996). In northeast Oregon, Bull and Hayes (2000) found the numbers of metamorphosed frogs at a site was inversely correlated with the presence of Longnose Dace (
) and rainbow trout (
). (3) American Bullfrogs, which were introduced into Montana sometime prior to 1968, have apparently extirpated Columbia Spotted Frogs from a number of sites along the Bitterroot, lower Flathead, and lower Clark Fork Rivers (Black 1969a, 1969b, Giermakowski 1998, Werner et al. 1998a, Bryce Maxell, personal observation). However, sizable Columbia Spotted Frog populations have been found in close proximity with American Bullfrogs on the floodplain of the Bitterroot River near spring brooks. Spring brooks provide summer habitat and overwintering sites for Columbia Spotted Frogs which are apparently too cold for American Bullfrogs (Cavallo 1997, Bryce Maxell, personal observation); therefore, provide important refuges for Columbia Spotted Frogs around the flood plains of the mountain valleys. (4) Manipulation of water levels in water impoundments can result in direct and indirect mortality of amphibian larvae and eggs. For example, during the summer of 1998, fluctuating water levels in Cabinet Gorge Reservoir in northwest Montana led to the desiccation of Columbia Spotted Frog eggs and larvae when water levels dropped for power generation (Bryce Maxell, personal observation). (5) Kirk (1988) found a large number of dead adults in Oregon as the result of spraying with DDT (0.65-0.72 kg DDT/ha) to control Douglas fir tussock moth. Subsequent examination of the tissues of the dead frogs showed them to be heavily contaminated with DDT and its analogs relative to live individuals collected at the same site. (6) In northeast Oregon, Bull and Hayes (2000) found that the numbers of egg masses, metamorphosed frogs, and adult frogs found at grazed and ungrazed ponds did not differ. (7) Patla (1997b, 1998a) and Patla and Peterson (1999) reported declines in a population in Yellowstone National Park as the result of highway construction and construction of an underground water pumping system which changed migratory habitat and the local hydrological regime, respectively. (8) Lefcort et al. (1998) reported reduced survival of Columbia Spotted Frog larvae when exposed to experimental chambers with heavy metal contaminated soils from an EPA Superfund site in northern Idaho. Larval survival was 0.875 in controls, 0.20 in heavily contaminated soil and 0.175 in less contaminated soil. Thus, average survival in the superfund soils represented an almost 80 percent reduction in larval survival. Furthermore, they found that exposure to most heavy metal contaminants had sublethal effects in that they greatly reduced the ability of tadpoles to respond to chemical cues from a fish predator. (9) Blaustein et al. (1999) found that Columbia Spotted Frogs had relatively high levels of photolyase, an enzyme that is known to repair UV-B damage to DNA, as compared with other amphibian species. Furthermore, at several field sites, hatching success was unaffected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B. Davis et al. (2000) found that embryo survival was above 80% for those exposed to ambient or no UV-B radiation, but dropped to 56% in those exposed to UV-B radiation enhanced to 15-30% above ambient levels at mid-day. Furthermore, few of the larvae survived when exposed to the enhanced UV-B radiation. (10) Reinking et al. (1980) found that aldosterone levels in blood plasma were over three times higher in animals held in captivity for three weeks than animals in the wild, indicating that animals face high levels of stress when held in captivity and possibly when being handled in the wild. (11) Historic loss of beaver may be causing gradual habitat loss in some mountain ranges in Montana as sites fill in with sediments and are no longer being replaced (Grant Hokit, Carroll College, personal communication, Bryce Maxell, personal observation).
Literature Cited Above
Legend: View Online Publication [USFWS] US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; finding on petition to list the spotted frog. Federal Register 58(87): 27260-27263. Black, J.H. 1969a. The frog genus Rana in Montana. Northwest Science 43(4): 191-195. Black, J.H. 1969b. Yes--there are bullfrogs in Montana. Montana Outdoors 1969: 4. Blaustein, A.R., J.B. Hays, P.D. Hoffman, D.P. Chivers, J.M. Kiesecker, W.P. Leonard, A. Marco, D.H. Olson, J.K. Reaser, and R.G. Anthony. 1999. DNA repair and resistance to UV-B radiation in western spotted frogs. Ecological-Applications 9(3): 1100-1105. Bull, E.L. and M.P. Hayes. 2000. Livestock effects on reproduction of the Columbia spotted frog. Journal of Range Management 53: 293-296. Burke, V. 1933. Bacteria as food for vertebrates. Science 78(2018): 194-195. Carpenter, C.C. 1953b. Aggregation behavior of tadpoles of Rana pretiosa pretiosa Herpetelogica 9: 77-78. Cavallo, B.J. 1997. Floodplain habitat heterogeneity and the distribution, abundance, and behavior of fishes and amphibians in the Middle Fork Flathead River Basin, Montana. M.S. Thesis. University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 133 p. Cuellar, O. 1994. Ecological observations on Rana pretiosa in western Utah. Alytes 12(3): 109-121. Davis, T.M., I.N. Flamarique, and K. Ovaska. 2000. Effects of UV-B on amphibian development: embryonic and larval survival of Hyla regilla and Rana pretiosa. Froglog 16: 3. Engle, J. 2000. Columbia spotted frog Great Basin population (Owyhee Mountains subpopulation) long-term monitoring plan. Franz, R. 1971. Notes on the distribution and ecology of the herpetofauna of northwestern Montana. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 7: 1-10. Giermakowski, J.T. 1998. Microhabitat separation between the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in Western Montana. Undergraduate Thesis, Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. Missoula, Montana. 2 Green, D.M., H. Kaiser, T.F. Sharbel, J. Kearsley, and K.R. McAllister. 1997. Cryptic species of spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa complex, in western North America. Copeia 1997(1): 1-8. Green, D.M., T.F. Sharbel, J. Kearsley, and H. Kaiser. 1996. Postglacial range fluctuation, genetic subdivision and speciation in the western North American spotted frog complex, Rana pretiosa. Evolution 50: 374-390. Hollenbeck, R.R. 1974. Growth rates and movements within a population of Rana pretiosa pretiosa Baird and Girard in south central Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 66 p. Hovingh, P. 1993. Aquatic habitats, life history observations, and zoogeographic considerations of the spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) in Tule Valley, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 53(2): 168-179. Kirk, J.J. 1988. Western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) mortality following forest spraying of DDT. Herpetological Review 19(3): 51-53. Koch, E.D., G. Williams, C.R. Peterson and P.S. Corn. 1996. Conference on declining and sensitive amphibians in the Northern Rockies and the Pacific Northwest: a summary paper. Idaho Herpetological Society Technical Bulletin and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report, Boise, Idaho. Lefcort, H., R.A. Meguire, L.H. Wilson, and W.F. Ettinger. 1998. Heavy metals alter the survival, growth, metamorphosis, and antipredatory behavior of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) tadpoles. Archives of Environmental Contaminants and Toxico Marnell, L. E. 1997. Herpetofauna of Glacier National Park. Northwestern Naturalist 78:17-33. Maxell, B.A., P. Hendricks, M.T. Gates, and S. Lenard. 2009. Montana amphibian and reptile status assessment, literature review, and conservation plan, June 2009. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 643 p. Miller, J.D. 1978. Observations on the diets of Rana pretiosa, Rana pipiens, and Bufo boreas from western Montana. Northwest Science 52(3): 243-249. Monello, R.J. and R.G. Wright. 1999. Amphibian habitat preferences among artificial ponds in the Palouse Region of Northern Idaho. Journal of Herpetology 33(2): 298-303. Moore, J.E. and E.H. Strickland. 1955. Further notes on the food of Alberta amphibians. American Midland Naturalist 52: 221-224. Morris, R.L. and W.W. Tanner. 1969. The ecology of the western spotted frog, Rana pretiosa pretiosa Baird & Girard: a life history study. Great Basin Naturalist 29(2): 45-81. Patla, D.A. 1997a. Changes in a population of spotted frogs in Yellowstone National Park between 1953 and 1995: the effects of habitat modification. Ph.D. dissertation, Idaho State University, Pocatello. Patla, D.A. 1997b. Potential impacts to amphibians and reptiles from the proposed Canyon contractor camp. 10 May 1997 (Supplement, 12 January 1998). Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Program, Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID. 16 p. Patla, D.A. 1998a. Amphibians and reptiles in the Old Faithful sewage treatment area. Report to Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park. 10 September, 1998. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Program, Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID. 7 p. Patla, D.A. and C.R. Peterson. 1999. Are amphibians declining in Yellowstone National Park? Yellowstone Science 1999 (Winter):2-11. Pilliod, D.S. 1999. Rana luteiventris (Columbia spotted frog) cannibalism. Herpetological Review 30(2): 93. Reaser, J. K. 1996a. Rana pretiosa (Spotted Frog) vagility. Herpetological Review 27: 196-197. Reaser, J.K. 1996b. Spotted frog: catalyst for sharing common ground in the riparian ecosystems of Nevada's range landscape. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report INT 343: 32-39. Reaser, J.K. 1997. Amphibian declines: conservation science and adaptive management. 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