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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Tufted Foxtail - Alopecurus carolinianus

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Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNR
C-value: 4

Agency Status


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General Description
Annual (and winter annual) bunchgrass. Stems 10–30 cm. Leaves: blades 2–4 mm wide. Inflorescence a cylindrical panicle 1–3 cm long, <5 mm in diameter. Spikelets 2.5–3 mm long; glumes silky along the keel and marginal veins. Lemmas with an awn from the base and extending 2–3 mm past tip of lemma (Lavin in Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Plant annual; spikelet 2 to 2.5 mm long; panicle dense; anthers 0.5 mm long (Hitchcock 1951).

Species Range

Range Comments
Throughout most of the U.S. and adjacent southwestern Canada (Lavin in Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 24

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Moist disturbed areas, wet meadows and seep areas at low to moderate elevations (Lavin in Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Cronquist, A., A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal, and P. K. Holmgren. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Volume 6: The Monocotyledons. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. 584 pp.
    • Fryxell, P.A. 1957. Mode of reproduction of higher plants. Botanical Review 23(3): 135-233.
    • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.
    • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]
    • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2022. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants, Second Edition. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 779 p.
    • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.
    • Ridley, H.N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve & Co., Ltd., Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom. 744 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Tufted Foxtail — Alopecurus carolinianus.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from