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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Northern Toadflax - Geocaulon lividum
Other Names:  Comandra lividum

Potential Species of Concern
Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S3S4
C-value: 7

Agency Status


External Links

General Description
Stems erect, simple,10–30 cm, usually solitary. Leaves short-petiolate, narrowly elliptic, 1–5 cm long. Inflorescence: 3 pedicellate flowers per axil of middle leaves. Flowers all apparently perfect, but some functionally male; hypanthium green to purple, ca. 1 mm long; sepals deltoid, 1–1.5 mm long. Fruit a red drupe, 5–10 mm long, solitary in leaf axils (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range Range Descriptions


Range Comments
AK to NL south to WA, MT, MN and NY (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 76

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Moist spruce forests, often bordering wetland areas, in the montane zone.
Predicted Suitable Habitat Model

This species has a Predicted Suitable Habitat Model available.

To learn how these Models were created see

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Chadde, Steve. Sensitive Plant Survey, Pinkham Analysis Area, Kootenai National Forest. Unpublished Report, 26 Pp. Plus Appendices.
    • Warrington, P.D. 1970. The natural history of Parasitism of Geocaulon lividum (Santalaceae). Ph.D dissertation. University of British Columbia 157 pp.
  • Web Search Engines for Articles on "Northern Toadflax"
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Citation for data on this website:
Northern Toadflax — Geocaulon lividum.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from