Northern Toadflax - Geocaulon lividum
Stems erect, simple,10–30 cm, usually solitary. Leaves short-petiolate, narrowly elliptic, 1–5 cm long. Inflorescence: 3 pedicellate flowers per axil of middle leaves. Flowers all apparently perfect, but some functionally male; hypanthium green to purple, ca. 1 mm long; sepals deltoid, 1–1.5 mm long. Fruit a red drupe, 5–10 mm long, solitary in leaf axils (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX
AK to NL south to WA, MT, MN and NY (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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Moist spruce forests, often bordering wetland areas, in the montane zone.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Chadde, Steve. Sensitive Plant Survey, Pinkham Analysis Area, Kootenai National Forest. Unpublished Report, 26 Pp. Plus Appendices.
- Warrington, P.D. 1970. The natural history of Parasitism of Geocaulon lividum (Santalaceae). Ph.D dissertation. University of British Columbia 157 pp.