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American Pinesap - Monotropa hypopithys
Other Names:  Hypopitys monotropa

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4
(see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status


External Links

State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Monotropa hypopithys occurs in low densities in central and western Montana. It grows in moist, deeply-shaded coniferous forests.
  • Details on Status Ranking and Review
    American Pinesap (Monotropa hypopithys) Conservation Status Review
    Review Date = 09/06/2017
    View State Conservation Rank Criteria
    Range Extent

    ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 sq km (~8,000-80,000 sq mi)

    Area of Occupancy

    ScoreE - 26-125 4-km2 grid cells

    Number of Populations

    ScoreC - 21 - 80

    Number of Occurrences or Percent Area with Good Viability / Ecological Integrity

    ScoreC - Few (4-12) occurrences with excellent or good viability or ecological integrity


    ScoreD - Low

    CommentNo known threats.

    Intrinsic Vulnerability

    ScoreB - Moderately vulnerable

General Description
Achlorophyllous, mycotrophic, firm-fleshy perennial herbs. Stems erect, to 25 cm, simple, yellowish to reddish-orange, aging dark brown. Leaves bract-like, alternate, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, colored as the stem. Inflorescence a crowded, few-flowered, terminal raceme nodding at anthesis, elongating and becoming erect in fruit; pedicels, elongating in fruit. Flowers hypogynous; perianth yellowish; terminal flower 5-merous; those below mostly 4-merous; petals separate, longer than the separate sepals; subtending bracts orange to reddish; stamens 8 or 10; ovary superior. Fruit a subglobose, 4- to 5-chambered capsule (Stickney in Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range Range Descriptions


Range Comments
Common from the piedmont north but known from only a few stations in GA, AL, and FL south of the piedmont. In the Neotropics, found in Mexico and Guatemala, growing in forests of Pinus, Abies, and Quercus at elevations of 1800-4000 m.

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 73

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Drier confierous forests; montane, subalpine (Stickney in Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Forcella, F. 1977. Flora, chorology, biomass and productivity of the Pinus albicaulis-Vaccinium scoparium association. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 99 pp.
    • Hawkins, P.H. 1903. The alpine flora of Montana. M.Sc. Thesis, Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 24 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
American Pinesap — Monotropa hypopithys.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from