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Montana Field Guides

Claspingleaf Venus'-looking-glass - Triodanis perfoliata

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S3S4
(see State Rank Reason below)
C-value: 4

Agency Status


External Links

State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Triodanis perfoliata is common in the southeastern Great Plains and extends into eastern, central, and western Montana. It occurs in grasslands that can be rocky or mixed with Pinus ponderosa, in stream terraces, or moist areas. It has been found in grazed and ungrazed lands, around campgrounds and reservoirs, and appears to tolerate some disturbance. Re-visits to the 25 known locations and current population data is greatly needed.
  • Details on Status Ranking and Review
    Claspingleaf Venus'-looking-glass (Triodanis perfoliata) Conservation Status Review
    Review Date = 09/13/2017
    View State Conservation Rank Criteria
    Range Extent

    ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 sq km (~8,000-80,000 sq mi)

    Area of Occupancy

    ScoreD - 6-25 4-km2 grid cells

    Number of Populations

    ScoreC - 21 - 80

    Number of Occurrences or Percent Area with Good Viability / Ecological Integrity

    ScoreB - Very few (1-3) occurrences with excellent or good viability or ecological integrity

    Environmental Specificity

    ScoreC - Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce


    ScoreD - Low

    CommentNo known threats.

General Description
Stems erect, usually branched, 10–40 cm. Herbage sparsely hispid. Leaves ovate to orbicular, crenate, sessile, cordate-clasping above, 5–20 mm long. Inflorescence with clusters of 1 to 3 sessile flowers in axils of leaf-like bracts; lower flowers cleistogamous. Chasmogamous flowers: sepals lanceolate, 3–7 mm long; corolla purple, 6–10 mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, 5–8 mm long for chasmogamous flowers, 3–4 mm long for cleistogamous flowers (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range


Range Comments
Temperate North America south to S. America (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 25

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Disturbed soil of grasslands, roadsides; plains, valleys, montane (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

The following animal species have been reported as pollinators of this plant species or its genus where their geographic ranges overlap: Bombus pensylvanicus and Bombus griseocollis (Colla and Dumesh 2010).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Colla, S.R. and S. Dumesh. 2010. The bumble bees of southern Ontario: notes on natural history and distribution. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 141: 39-68.
    • Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey and J. W. Thompson. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 4. Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. University of Washington Press, Seattle and London. 510 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. B13BRI01PAUS.
    • Cope, M.G. 1992. Distribution, habitat selection and survival of transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) in the Tobacco Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 60 p.
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Citation for data on this website:
Claspingleaf Venus'-looking-glass — Triodanis perfoliata.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from