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Montana Field Guides

Angled Paludella Moss - Paludella squarrosa

Species of Concern
Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S1S2

Agency Status


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General Description
Plants: Acrocarpous, tufted, dull-yellow green with a touch of chartreuse (Vitt 1988), often almost black below. Stems usually unbranched, frequently with rhizoids bunched in the leaf axils (Lawton 1971), 3-7 cm (FNA 2014).

Leaves: Stem leaves firm when wet or dry, 1.5-2 mm long, strongly squarrose-recurved in the apical half, obovate (FNA 2014) or ovate-lanceolate from an upright, oblong base, widest at the middle, keeled (Lawton 1971); margins serrulate apically, recurved near mid leaf; apex sharply-angled to short-acuminate; costa thin, not reaching the apex (FNA 2014).

Leaf Cells: Rounded or 6-sided, mammillose-papillose on both surfaces, thick-walled (FNA 2014); distal cells shorter than the elongate basal cells (Lawton 1971).

Diagnostic Characteristics
A calcareous fen habitat and strongly squarrose-recurved leaves are all that is required for identification (FNA 2014).

Range Comments
Greenland; Canada: AB, BC, MB, NL, NT, NS, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, CO, IA, ME, MI, MN, MT, NY, VT; n Eurasia (FNA 2014). In Montana: Beaverhead, Carbon, Glacier, and Park Counties (Elliott 2016).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 9

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Calcareous fens. Low to high elevations (FNA 2014).

Reproductive Characteristics
Dioicous (FNA 2014). Perigonia and perichaetia terminal; perichaetial bracts lanceolate, upright-spreading, not squarrose; perigonia discoid; perigonial bracts upright with recurved tips (Lawton 1971). Seta 25-45 mm. Capsule 2-3 mm (FNA 2014), brown, smooth, bowed a little; neck creased when dry; operculum cone-shaped (Lawton 1971).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 28. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 2. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 702 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Elliot, J. C. 1993. Second checklist of Montana mosses. Unpublished report. U.S. Forest Service, Region 1. Missoula, MT. 45 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Angled Paludella Moss — Paludella squarrosa.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from