Cinderella Cord Moss - Funaria hygrometrica
Plants: Acrocarpous (Vitt 1988). Stems upright, bearing an antheridial branch below, otherwise simple, 4-10 mm, green to chartreuse, congested and bulbiform above and leafless below, or occasionally distant throughout (FNA 2007), becoming nearly upright to spreading, crinkled and deformed with age (Flowers 1973).
Leaves: Upper leaves 2-4 mm long, smaller below, extremely concave, oblong-ovate to more widely so distally; apex acute, ending in a short or long narrow point; margins smooth or barely serrulate above (FNA 2007), broadly incurved (Flowers 1973); costa single, ending just before to shortly beyond the apex (FNA 2007).
Leaf Cells: Upper and medial laminal cells large, swollen and thin-walled, 6-sided to rectangular, and becoming more oblong below (FNA 2007); basal cells rectangular or slightly rounded; alar cells not distinct (FNA 2007).
Funaria hygrometrica var. hygrometrica: Present in MT (FNA 2007).
Funaria hygrometrica var. calvescens: Apparently a tropical form of the species, extending into the southern United States (FNA 2007).
One of the most widespread, weedy mosses, possessing the morphological plasticity to adapt to environmental variations. The peristome teeth are opposite; the majority of mosses have alternate teeth (FNA 2007).
Variety hygrometrica: Greenland; Canada: AB, BC, MB, NB, NL, NT, NS, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT; USA: AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY; Mexico; Central America; South America; Europe; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands; Australia (FNA 2007). In Montana, known from Beaverhead, Big Horn, Carbon, Carter, Cascade, Flathead, Gallatin, Glacier, Lake, Lewis and Clark, Lincoln, Mineral, Missoula, Park, Ravalli, Sanders, and Sweet Grass Counties (Elliott 2016).
Variety calvescens: USA: AZ, FL, GA, LA, NC, SC, TN, TX; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; Africa (FNA 2007).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Variety hygrometrica: Exposed or disturbed soil, often following fire (Elliott 2016), gardens, lawns, greenhouses (Flowers 1973), sometimes gravel or wood. Low to high elevations (FNA 2007).
Variety calvescens: Disturbed soil, such as partly shaded areas near bases of buildings (FNA 2007).
Autoicous and fruiting abundantly (FNA 2007). Seta yellowish or with deep red tones (Flowers 1973), commonly (12-)20-45(-80) mm, thin and wavy, hygroscopic (FNA 2007) and spiraling when wet (Vitt 1988). Capsule 2-3.5 mm long, ranging from drooping or horizontal to nearly upright, becoming furrowed below the strongly slanting mouth when dry (FNA 2007), sunny yellow when old (Vitt 1988); operculum with a very short point and a bright red margin (Flowers 1973); peristome brown, with numerous cross-bars on the teeth; endostome segments yellowish (FNA 2007).
Variety hygrometrica: Capsule 2-3.5 mm, horizontal to drooping, neck somewhat tapered, mouth narrow and strongly slanted (FNA 2007).
Variety calvescens: Capsule 2-3 mm, slightly inclined to nearly upright, straight or barely rounded, tapered gradually to a long thin neck, mouth wide (FNA 2007).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 713 pp.
- Flowers, S. 1973. Mosses: Utah and the West. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 567 p.
- Vitt, D. J. Marsh, and R. Bovey. 1988. Mosses, Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 296 p.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
- Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.