An Extinguisher Moss - Encalypta affinis
MNPS Threat Rank
Plants: Acrocarpous, growing in loose to somewhat crowded clumps of upright shoots. Stems 1-2.5 cm tall, branching freely (FNA 2007) or simple (Lawton 1971), without a central strand (FNA 2007).
Leaves: Bent, twisted or curled when dry, spreading when moist, 3.5-5.5 mm in length, shaped like a spatula (Lawton 1971), strap, or lance, narrowing to a nearly obtuse or curved leaf tip with a smooth hyaline awn; leaf edges smooth, erratically curved back and downward, occasionally flat; costa extending to, beyond, or not quite reaching the apex (FNA 2007).
Leaf Cells: Lower laminal cells long and quadrangular with fine walls, papillose; upper laminal cells nearly square, papillose (FNA 2007); papillae of upper and medial cells simple or 2- to 4-lobed, on juvenile leaves sometimes faint (Lawton 1971); lower marginal cells not distinct from adjacent cells (FNA 2007).
No other species of the genus has basal leaf cells displaying papillae (FNA 2007).
AK to NT, s to WA and MT (FNA 2007). Known in Montana from Flathead, Glacier, Lincoln, and Missoula Counties (Elliott & Pipp, 2016).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
On soil or stone, in sheltered montane and alpine areas (FNA 2007), an arctic-alpine species (Steere 1973).
Autoicous. Perigonial bracts shorter than the vegetative leaves (Lawton 1971). Seta deep red, 6-19 mm tall. Capsule ochre, 3-4 mm in length, typically borne beyond the bracts, occasionally only partially emerged (FNA 2007), smooth, the neck creased when dry; operculum 1.6-2 mm in length (Lawton 1971); peristome with 16 papillose and very slender lance-shaped teeth; endostome joined to and nearly the length of the teeth, papillose. Calyptra papillose in the upper half (FNA 2007), occasionally with fine papillae in the bottom half (Lawton 1971), 5-7 mm tall, the bottom edge appearing deeply torn (FNA 2007).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 713 pp.
- Steere, William. 1978. The Mosses of Arctic Alaska. J. Cramer, Liechenstein.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
- Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.