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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Wideleaf Crumia Moss - Crumia latifolia

Status Under Review
Native Species

Global Rank: G3
State Rank: SU
(see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Crumia latifolia is known in Montana from one collection made in the late 1800s by R.S. Williams (Elliott and Pipp 2018). The specimen is assigned to Cascade County and was collected along the banks for the Missouri River prior to dam construction.
General Description
Plants: Acrocarpous, growing in dense, rounded clumps of upright shoots, deep or blackish green (FNA 2007), many times tinted with red distally, russet below (Flowers 1973), frequently covered with lime (Lawton 1971). Stems to 3 mm in height, frequently branching, 5-sided with softened angles in X-section, with few rhizoids (FNA 2007).

Leaves: Lying flat against the stem and faintly twisted and curved when dry, spreading when wet (FNA 2007), 3-5 mm in length, 0.8-1.5 mm in width (Lawton 1971), spatula-shaped, typically with an apiculus at the widely acute apex; margins smooth (FNA 2007), flat above (Flowers 1973), curved back and downward in the lower half (FNA 2007) and becoming more tightly rolled back and under closer to the base (Flowers 1973); base frequently partially eroded away (Flowers 1973); costa ending at the apex or within a couple of cells of it (FNA 2007).

Leaf Cells: Margin with somewhat orange cells, “double-bordered,” with an outer margin of smaller cells in 1 row (Lawton 1971) and about 5-6 rows of softly-angled, diamond-shaped or rectangular cells adjacent to it; lower margin with a border consisting of several series of somewhat long, oblong cells; costa in X-section with a ventral epidermis, the dorsal epidermis faint, a strong dorsal stereid band, and 1 layer of 3-4 guide cells; basal laminal cells swollen, fine-walled and brown; upper medial cells in 1 layer, 6- to 4-sided, a little narrower than the basal cells, with about 8-12 papillae per cell, some papillae 2-lobed (FNA 2007).

Capsules ripen late spring through mid-summer (FNA 2007).

Range Comments
North American Range

In western North America, occurring in both coastal and arid interior British Columbia, Washington, Montana, Oregon, California, and Nevada (Christy & Wagner 1996). BC s to CA, also MT, UT and AZ (FNA 2007). Known in Montana from Cascade County (Elliott and Pipp 2016).

Wet, frequently calcareous areas, on stones and soil (Lawton 1971); sometimes underwater where the flow is rapid or in cascading water, cement structures (Flowers 1973).

Reproductive Characteristics
Dioicous, with 1 fruit in a perichaetium (sometimes 2). Seta russet, about 0.14 cm tall, spiraled, russet. Capsule carried beyond the perichaetial leaves, the urn russet; peristome teeth 16, split deeply into 2 long, linear lobes, the branches connecting (FNA 2007), papillose (Lawton 1971), spiraled counterclockwise faintly. Calyptra draping in a hood-like fashion (FNA 2007).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Christy, J.A. & D.H. Wagner. 1996. Guide for the identification of rare, threatened or sensitive bryophytes in the range of the northern spotted owl, western Washington, western Oregon, and northwestern California. USDI Bureau of Land Management. 200 pp.
    • Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 713 pp.
    • Flowers, S. 1973. Mosses: Utah and the West. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 567 p.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Wideleaf Crumia Moss — Crumia latifolia.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from