Black Golf Club Moss - Catoscopium nigritum
Plants: Acrocarpous. In crowded dark- or brownish-green patches (Lawton 1971) of erect, reddish-black stems. Stems upright, to 6 cm, forked (FNA 2014) with many rhizoids (Lawton 1971).
Leaves: Stem leaves in three vertical lines, upright-spreading when wet, contorted when dry, 0.8-1.5 mm, lance-shaped; margins smooth, curved downwards (FNA 2014), flat or curved sharply downwards; apex subulate (awl-shaped); costa substantial, ending before or at the apex (Lawton 1971). Perichaetial leaves similar or a little bigger than the stem leaves (FNA 2014).
Leaf Cells: Basal laminal cells elongate-rectangular; distal cells shorter than basal cells, rectangular to quadrate (FNA 2014).
Capsules ripen in summer (FNA 2014).
When fertile, Catoscopium nigritum is noticeable; look for inclined, glossy black capsules (that resemble a golf club) with a mouth that is small and points downward (FNA 2014).
Greenland; Canada: AB, BC, MB, NB, NL, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, CA, IN, IA, MI, MN, MT, NY; Europe; Asia; Atlantic Islands (Iceland) (FNA 2014). In Montana: Flathead, Glacier, Lewis and Clark, Lincoln, and Ravalli Counties (Elliott 2016).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Circumboreal species restricted to rich, calcareous fens (Elliott 2016).
Dioicous (FNA 2014). Seta black, thin, 0.8-2.4 cm. Capsule shiny black, tilting to horizontal with small mouth directed downward, rounded and ovoid, 0.6-1 mm; exostome with 16 short teeth (FNA 2014).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 28. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 2. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 702 pp.
- Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
- Malcolm, W. M., and Nancy Malcolm. 2000. Mosses and Other Bryophytes: An Illustrated Glossary. Nelson, New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press.