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A Bentleaf Moss - Campylophyllum halleri
Other Names:  Campylium halleri

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNR

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

General Description
Plants: Pleurocarpous (Vitt 1988). Tiny and shiny (Crum & Anderson et al. 1981), forming thick mats, green, ochre, or green with brown tinges. Stems creeping (Lawton 1971), freely forked to pinnate; central strand weak or lacking; hyalodermis not present (FNA 2014); paraphyllia occasionally present, filiform or foliose (Lawton 1971), the leaf-like ones thin and lance-shaped, occasionally egg-shaped, sparse; axillary hairs with up to 6 distal cells; rhizoids or their initials occurring on the outer surface of the costa attachment or on the stem, seldom producing woolly mats, branched (FNA 2014).

Leaves: Stem leaves crowded, about the same dry or wet, spreading more or less 90 degrees, heart- shaped to widely or narrowly egg-shaped, 0.3-0.7 mm in length (FNA 2014), 0.2-0.4 mm in length (Lawton 1971); acumen ca 1/3 to less than 1/2 the length of the leaf, grooved (FNA 2014); margins saw-toothed above or occasionally all over (Lawton 1971), revolute below, unbordered; base spreading somewhat; costa short and paired (FNA 2014).

Leaf Cells: Basal alar cells quadrangular, longer than the distal alar cells, the distal alar cells quadrangular (sometimes elongate crosswise) or square, the alar area only extending 1/3 or less of the distance from the leaf edge to the costa attachment, the boundary not well-defined; medial laminal cells narrowly 6-sided to very thin; marginal cells in 1 layer (FNA 2014).

Diagnostic Characteristics
The short acumina in combination with the squarrose leaves are characteristic. No other Campylophyllum species in North America is as strongly squarrose (FNA 2014).

Range Comments
North American Range

AK to NT, BC and AB, MT, CO, QC, NB and NL, NY; Mexico (FNA 2014). Known in Montana from Flathead County (Elliott 2016).

Calcium-rich rock in mountains (Elliott 2016), organic soil, tree bottoms; western montane and eastern lowland habitats. Elevation to 5580 feet (FNA 2014).

Reproductive Characteristics
Autoicous. Seta 8-13 mm tall (FNA 2014), reddish (Crum & Anderson et al. 1981). Capsule bowed, level (FNA 2014); theca 1-1.5 mm in length (Lawton 1971); exostome edges toothed or with a few fine teeth above; endostome cilia knobby (FNA 2014), without openings in the segments, ochre (Crum & Anderson et al. 1981).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Crum, H.A. and L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. 2 volumes. Columbia University Press, New York. 1328 pp.
    • Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 28. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 2. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 702 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
    • Vitt, D. J. Marsh, and R. Bovey. 1988. Mosses, Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 296 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
    • Smith, A.J.E. 1980. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 705 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
A Bentleaf Moss — Campylophyllum halleri.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from