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A Bryoerythrophyllum Moss - Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum
Other Names:  Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostre

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNR

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

General Description
Plants: Acrocarpous. Growing in upright clumps (Lawton 1971), green above, russet below. Fertile stems to 2 cm, sometimes branching (FNA 2007); possessing a central strand (Lawton 1971).

Leaves: Contorted (Lawton 1971), appressed and overlapping when dry, ascending when wet. Stem leaves usually 1.5-3.5 mm in length, long and lance-shaped, occasionally the shorter leaves appearing somewhat oblong, sometimes egg-shaped (FNA 2007), typically apiculate (Lawton 1971); margins curved back and downward in the lower 3/4 of the leaf or extending to the leaf tip; apex smooth or with 1-3 teeth, acute or widely so; costa extending to the apex or reaching slightly below it, lacking dorsal projections (FNA 2007).

Leaf Cells: Axillary hairs with the first 1-2 of the several cells transparent; costa in X-section with 1 row of 2-4 guide cells, and dorsal and ventral stereid bands, the dorsal band crescent-shaped (FNA 2007) and more developed than the ventral band, the ventral band disappearing at the extreme base and above mid-leaf (Lawton 1971); lower laminal cells rectangular, filling in most of the sheathing base, frequently slender in the 1-4 rows along the leaf edge, the middle cells ca 3-4:1; upper medial cells nearly square or short quadrangular, papillose, nearly always unistratose (FNA 2007).

Fruit ripens summer through early fall (FNA 2007).

Species Range

Range Comments
North American Range

AK to NL and NS, across the northern Continental USA from WA and OR to MN, IA, WI, MI, NY and VT, also NV to CO, and AZ; Mexico (FNA 2007). Known in Montana from Carbon, Cascade, Fallon, Fergus, Flathead, Glacier, Lake, Lewis and Clark, Lincoln, Madison, Missoula, and Ravalli Counties (Elliott 2016).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 11

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Soil and rock, often calcareous (Elliott 2016), bark, high elevation meadows, river banks. Elevation: 65-12,470 feet (FNA 2007).

Reproductive Characteristics
Monoicous, the archegonia and antheridia sometimes mingling, rhizautoicous (in which a very short perigonial branch is attached to the female inflorescence via a rhizoid), or polygamous. Perichaetial leaves enveloping the stem below, longer than the stem leaves (FNA 2007).

Specialized vegetative reproduction lacking (FNA 2007).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 713 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Flowers, S. 1973. Mosses: Utah and the West. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 567 p.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
    • Malcolm, B., N. Malcolm, J. Shevock, and D. Norris. 2009. California Mosses. Nelson, New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press. 430 pp.
    • Smith, A.J.E. 1980. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 705 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
A Bryoerythrophyllum Moss — Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from