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An Antitrichia Moss - Antitrichia californica

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNR

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

General Description
Plants: Pleurocarpous (Vitt 1988), growing in wide-spreading mats, shiny, deep green when dry, bright green when wet (FNA 2014), or may be yellow-brown (Lawton 1971). Secondary stems ascending, more or less evenly pinnate, up to 10 cm in length; lateral branches to 1.5 cm in length, subequal, narrow and whip-like distally, sometimes fertile or producing branchlets up to 5 mm (FNA 2014).

Leaves: Stem leaves catkin-like (from leaves flattened to stem and overlapping) when dry, erect-spreading when wet, lanceolate to ovate (FNA 2014), 2-3 mm in length; margins extremely revolute almost to apex (Lawton 1971), the apical portion serrulate or severely (long) toothed; apex acute to acuminate; costa reaching almost to the apex, lacking or with 1-3 supplementary costae on both sides consisting of 6 or fewer cells. Branch leaves similar to but smaller and narrower than stem leaves, catkin-like and revolute when dry, erect-spreading when wet (FNA 2014).

Leaf Cells: Stem leaf cell walls with few or no pores, smooth; medial cells wavy and linear; alar cells nearly square to transversely rectangular. Perichaetial leaves have thin-walled, rectangular basal cells, 4-5:1, and wavy, elongated medial cells, 5-8:1 (FNA 2014).

Diagnostic Characteristics
The revolute leaf margins and lack of a single strong costa are good field identification attributes for Antitrichia (Vitt 1988).

Range Comments
Canada: BC; USA: AK, CA, ID, OR, WA; s Europe; sw Asia; n Africa; Atlantic Islands (FNA 2014). In Montana, known from Flathead, Lake, Lincoln, Meagher, Park, and Sanders Counties (Elliott 2016).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 5

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

In full sun to some shade (FNA 2014), on rotten wood, organic soil, humus and rock at low to moderate elevations (Elliott 2016).

Reproductive Characteristics
Dioicous. Seta 8-11 mm tall. Capsule extending beyond the perichaetial bracts, upright, more or less cylindric, 2.5-5 mm in length (FNA 2014).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). Updated 3 January, 2020. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 28. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 2. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 702 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
    • Vitt, D. J. Marsh, and R. Bovey. 1988. Mosses, Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 296 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
An Antitrichia Moss — Antitrichia californica.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from