Columbian Forestfly - Zapada columbiana
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Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
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The larvae of this species are found in small-medium, high gradient mountain streams (Newell and Minshall 1978), and are indicators of the Pristine Mountain Stream Ecological System (Stagliano 2005). Most Nemouridae species are shredders or collector-gatherers utilizing coarse plant materials (Merritt and Cummins 1996).
Merritt and Cummins (1996) report that members of this family are trophically shredder-detritivores; eating large particulate organic materials such as detritus, leaves and plants.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Cummins, K.W. and R.W. Merritt. 1996. Ecology and distribution of aquatic insects. Chapter 6, pages 74-86 in R.W. Merritt and K.W. Cummins (eds.) An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Third Edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 862 pp.
- Newall, R.L., and G.W. Minshall. 1978. An annotated list of the aquatic insects of southeastern Idaho. Part III. (Ephemeroptera). Great Basin Naturalist 38(1): 55-58.
- Stagliano, D.M. 2005. Aquatic community classification and ecosystem diversity in Montana's Missouri River watershed. Prepared for Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 65 pp. plus appendices.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Gustafson, D. L. 1990. Ecology of aquatic insects in the Gallatin River drainage. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 194 p.
- Muhlfeld, C.C., T.J. Cline, J.J. Giersch, E. Peitzsch, C. Florentine, D. Jacobsen, and S. Hotaling. 2020. Specialized meltwater biodiversity persists despite widespread deglaciation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences May 2020, 202001697; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001697117
- Wells, E.A. 1986. Alpine limnology of selected water bodies on the Beartooth Plateau, Montana, with emphasis on benthos. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 401 p.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Insects"