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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Mourning Cloak - Nymphalis antiopa

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5


Agency Status
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General Description
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002] Forewing 3.5-4.4 cm. Short projections on both wings; wing margins ragged. Uppersurface deep chocolate to maroon with broad yellow outer margins, a row of bright blue submarginal spots; undersurface cinder-black with fine pattern of black and blue, blue-green chevrons inside a pale border.

Phenology
One flight in far north and mountains, mostly late July and overwintering to June; two flights in New York and lower elevations in the west, late June to mid-August and late August overwintering to May; three flights in the east and southeast (Scott 1986). Late June to mid-August and late August overwintering to late May in Colorado (Scott and Scott 1978); mid-February to mid-October with peaks in April to June and August to September in Oregon and Washington (Pyle 2002); late March to October in southeastern British Columbia (Threatful 1988).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Best determined by large size, dark chocolate to maroon uppersurface of both wings, with a broad yellow marginal border (faded in older individuals) and a row of bright blue submarginal spots.

Species Range
Montana Range Range Descriptions

Native
 


Range Comments
Holarctic. Throughout North America south of the tundra to central Mexico, rarely to the Gulf coast and peninsular Florida (Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001); to 3355 m elevation in Colorado (Brown 1957; Scott and Scott 1978) but usually lower; in some years to at least 2750 m elevation in central California (Shapiro 1986); 456-1036 m elevation in southeastern British Columbia (Threatful 1988). In Montana, throughout the state (Kohler 1980; Stanford and Opler 1993). Generally common except rare to uncommon in southern California and Texas (Glassberg 2001).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 36

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Migratory to some degree; a few mass movements documented, some individuals move at least 70 km, others wander southward irregularly, yet others may make seasonal elevational movements (Scott 1986; Shapiro 1986; Opler and Wright 1999).

Habitat
Streamcourses, riparian areas, montane forest openings, woodlands, city parks (Scott 1986, Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002). In Glacier National Park, Montana reported in montane xeric and mesic meadows (Debinski 1993); woodlands, streamsides, mountain parks in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (Debinski and Pritchard 2002).

Food Habits
Larval food plants include Acer, Alnus, Betula (several species), Celtis, Fraxinus, Humulus, Morus, Ostrya, Populus (several species), Pyrus, Rosa, Rubus, Rumex, Salix (several species), Sorbus, Spirea, Tilia, and Ulmus (Scott 1986, 1992, 2006). Adults feed on flower nectar (including Arctostaphylos, Asclepias, Chrysothamnus, Cirsium, Dirca, Physocarpus, Prunus, Salix, Tilia), tree sap, rotten fruit, and mud (Scott 1986, 2014; Tooker et al. 2002).

Reproductive Characteristics
Females lay eggs in single layer clusters (up to 250 eggs) circling near tip of host plant twig, rarely on leaves (Scott 1986, 1992, 2006). Eggs hatch in about 5-10 days (depending on temperature). Larvae develop rapidly, pupating about 16 days after egg-hatch, adults eclose (emerge from pupae) in another 12 days. Larvae highly gregarious, surrounded in a silk nest as L1-L3 instars, mature L5 instars leave host plant before pupating, hibernate (overwinter) as adults (Scott 1986; James and Nunnallee 2011). Males territorial, perch on branches from mid-day to late afternoon in valley bottoms, swales, trails, stream courses, to await passage of females; patrol every few minutes (Scott 1975b, 1986; Bitzer and Shaw 1983).

References
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Citation for data on this website:
Mourning Cloak — Nymphalis antiopa.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from