Oreas Anglewing - Polygonia oreas
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002] Forewing 2.3-2.9 cm. The most ragged and lobed wing margin of the Polygonia. uppersurface of forewing with large spot in posterior basal region (in 2nd cubitus cell), upper surface of hindwing with dark border the same color on both sides of enclosed hindwing pale submarginal band of yellowish chevrons; undersurface blackish-gray, usually two-toned (lighter on the outer half), undersurface of hindwing with a sharply-angled white "L" near outer edge of darker basal half.
One flight; late July overwintering to early June (Scott 1986). Late June to September (Glassberg 2001); late June to mid-September in Oregon (Warren 2005); late February to mid-September with peaks in May and July-September in Oregon and Washington (Pyle 2002).
Confusing; best determined by combination of uppersurface of forewing with large spot in posterior basal region (in 2nd cubitus cell), uppersurface of hindwing with dark border the same color on both sides of enclosed hindwing pale submarginal band of yellowish chevrons, undersurface hindwing with a sharply-angled white "L" near outer edge of darker basal half.
Southern British Columbia south in the Pacific US to central California, south in the Rocky Mountain states through Idaho, western Montana, and extreme northwestern Wyoming, an isolated population throughout much of western Colorado (Scott 1986; Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001); to 1525 m elevation in Oregon (Warren 2005). In Montana, reported from many counties in the western half of the state (Kohler 1980; Stanford and Opler 1993).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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Forest edges, moist woodland clearings, montane meadows, along streams (Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002). Habitat in Montana not described but probably similar.
Larval food plants include several species of Ribes (Scott 1986, 1992; Pyle 2002; Warren 2005; James and Nunnallee 2011). Adults feed on flower nectar (including Anaphalis, Chrysothamnus, Ribes), sap, dung, carrion, rotting fruit, and mud (Pyle 2002; James and Nunnallee 2011; Scott 2014).
Females lay eggs singly usually on undersurface of host plant leaves (Scott 1986, 1992). Larvae grow rapidly (depending on temperature), from L1 instar to L5 instar and pupation in 16-19 days, another 9-12 days for adults to eclose (emerge from pupae). Larvae nocturnal, solitary, rest on undersides of leaves within leaf folds tied with silk to form nest, sometimes involve multiple leaves in nest, pupate within final leaf nest or suspended in open, overwinters as adult (James and Nunnallee 2011). Males perch on shrubs and small trees (sometimes 3 m above ground) in valley bottoms awaiting passing females (Scott 1975b, 1986; James and Nunnallee 2011).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown (eds). 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountains. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. Norman. 442 pp.
- Glassberg, J. 2001. Butterflies through Binoculars: A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Western North America. Oxford University Press.
- Guppy, C.S. and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia: including western Alberta, southern Yukon, the Alaska Panhandle, Washington, northern Oregon, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana. UBC Press (Vancouver, BC) and Royal British Columbia Museum (Victoria, BC). 414 pp.
- James, D.G. and D. Nunnallee. 2011. Life histories of Cascadia butterflies. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. 447 p.
- Kohler, S. 1980. Checklist of Montana Butterflies (Rhopalocera). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 34(1): 1-19.
- Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Second edition. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 540 pp.
- Pyle, R.M. 2002. The butterflies of Cascadia: a field guide to all the species of Washington, Oregon, and surrounding territories. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington. 420 pp.
- Scott, J.A. 1975b. Mate-locating behavior of western North American butterflies. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 14:1-40.
- Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: a natural history and field guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
- Scott, J.A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1992, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio new series #6. 185 p.
- Scott, J.A. 2014. Lepidoptera of North America 13. Flower visitation by Colorado butterflies (40,615 records) with a review of the literature on pollination of Colorado plants and butterfly attraction (Lepidoptera: Hersperioidea and Papilionoidea). Contributions of the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthopod Diversity. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 190 p.
- Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies: including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Unpubl. Report. Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado 275 pp.
- Warren, A.D. 2005. Lepidoptera of North America 6: Butterflies of Oregon, their taxonomy, distribution, and biology. Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, Colorado. 406 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Allen, T.J., J.P. Brock, and J. Glassberg. 2005. Caterpillars in the field and garden: a field guide to the butterfly caterpillars of North America. Oxford University Press.
- Brock, J.P. and K. Kaufman. 2003. Kaufman Field Guide to Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY 284 pp.
- Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 280 pp. + color plates.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Insects"