Northern Marble - Euchloe creusa
[From Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001] Forewing about 1.6-2.4 cm. Uppersurface white, with narrow black bar in forewing cell, black scaling at base of both wings and along veins at forewing tip; undersurface of forewing with greenish marbling and yellow tracing veins at wing tip, thin bar in forewing cell, hindwing with extensive green marbling highly fractured with white producing a banded effect, veins traced in yellow.
One flight, mostly June to mid-July (Scott 1986). June and July (Glassberg 2001). Mid-May to late July, rarely to early August (Opler 1968; Opler and Wright 1999).
Best determined by a combination of white uppersurface with thin black bar in forewing cell, undersurface of hindwing with extensive green marbling highly fractured with white producing a banded effect, veins traced in yellow.
Holarctic. In North America, Alaska, Yukon, western Northwest Territories south to British Columbia, Alberta, and northwestern Saskatchewan (Opler 1968; Opler and Wright 1999, Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001; Back et al. 2011); 1219 m to at least 2134 m elevation in Alberta, 671 m to at least 1463 m elevation in British Columbia, 701 m to at least 1069 m elevation in the Yukon Territory (Opler 1968). In Montana, reported once, from northwest of Babb (Glacier County) on 7 June 1987 (Kohler 1980, personal communication; Ferris and Brown 1981; Stanford and Opler 1993). Rare (Glassberg 2001).
Alpine and arctic tundra, subalpine forest, coniferous forest openings, moraine talus, river flats (Opler 1968; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001). Habitat in Montana not described but probably similar.
Limited information. Larval food plants include the mustards Arabis glabra and Draba cana (Opler 1974; Scott 1986; Guppy and Shepard 2001). Adults probably feed on flower nectar, but behavior and flower species not reported.
Limited information. Females lay eggs singly on host plant flower buds (Opler 1974; Scott 1986). Presumably larvae eat flowers and fruits; likely hibernate on host plant as pupae after developing to L5 instar, as do other Euchloe species (Opler 1968; Scott 1979; James and Nunnallee 2011). Males probably patrol throughout the day over some topographic feature in search of females, similar to other Euchloe species (Scott 1975; James and Nunnallee 2011).
G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: Prevent removal of caterpillar host plants from public lands. Limit collection by permits.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Back, W., M.A. Miller, and P.A. Opler. 2011. Genetic, phenetic, and distributional relationships of Nearctic Euchloe (Pieridae, Pierinae, Anthocharidini). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 65(1): 1-14.
- Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown (eds). 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountains. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. Norman. 442 pp.
- Glassberg, J. 2001. Butterflies through Binoculars: A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Western North America. Oxford University Press.
- Guppy, C.S. and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia: including western Alberta, southern Yukon, the Alaska Panhandle, Washington, northern Oregon, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana. UBC Press (Vancouver, BC) and Royal British Columbia Museum (Victoria, BC). 414 pp.
- James, D.G. and D. Nunnallee. 2011. Life histories of Cascadia butterflies. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. 447 p.
- Kohler, S. 1980. Checklist of Montana Butterflies (Rhopalocera). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 34(1): 1-19.
- Kohler, Steve. Personal communication regarding records of Euchloe creusa in Montana. 31 January 2017.
- Opler, P.A. 1968. Studies of Nearctic Euchloe. Part 5. Distribution. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 7(2): 65-86.
- Opler, P.A. 1974. Studies of Nearctic Euchloe. Part 7. Comparative life histories, hosts, and the morphology of immature stages. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 13: 1-20.
- Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Second edition. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 540 pp.
- Scott, J.A. 1975b. Mate-locating behavior of western North American butterflies. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 14:1-40.
- Scott, J.A. 1979. Hibernal diapause of North American Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 18(3): 171-200.
- Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: a natural history and field guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
- Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies: including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Unpubl. Report. Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado 275 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Allen, T.J., J.P. Brock, and J. Glassberg. 2005. Caterpillars in the field and garden: a field guide to the butterfly caterpillars of North America. Oxford University Press.
- Brock, J.P. and K. Kaufman. 2003. Kaufman Field Guide to Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY 284 pp.
- Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 280 pp. + color plates.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Insects"