View in other NatureServe Network Field Guides
Western Milksnake - Lampropeltis gentilis
The back and sides of the body of the Milksnake are marked with whitish, black, and reddish or orange bands, with the reddish-orange bands bordered by the black; the snout is blackish and sometimes with whitish flecking. The bands often extend across the belly, but sometimes may be incomplete or absent, in which case the belly is whitish. Dorsal scales are smooth (unkeeled). The anal scale is not divided, as are most of the scales on the ventral surface of the tail. The neck is relatively short and thick. Total length of adults in the western Great Plains is usually 39 to 85 centimeters. Hatchlings are similar in appearance to adults, and 16 to 29 centimeters in total length. Eggs are slightly granular and range from 29 to 44 millimeters by 13 to 16 millimeters in length and breadth, depending on locality.
The whitish, black, and reddish to orange banding or rings around the body, an undivided anal scale, and smooth (unkeeled) dorsal scales distinguish the Milksnake from all other snakes native to Montana.
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
No information on the movement or migration of Milksnakes is available for Montana. The species is believed to be non-migratory. Little information is available on movements of Milksnakes throughout the species' range. They may migrate between hibernacula and summer ranges in some areas (Vogt 1981, Fitch and Fleet 1970, Hammerson 1999), and home ranges are about 20 hectares in northeastern Kansas.
Little specific information is available. Milksnakes have been reported in areas of open sagebrush-grassland habitat (Dood 1980) and ponderosa pine savannah with sandy soils (Hendricks 1999), most often in or near areas of rocky outcrops and hillsides or badland scarps, sometimes within city limits.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: mtnhp.org/requests
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
A carnivorous species, Milksnakes eat mostly small vertebrates, including snakes, lizards, reptile eggs, birds, bird eggs, small mammals (especially mice), and occasionally insects and worms (Hammerson 1999, St. John 2002, Stebbins 2003). The food habits in Montana have not been reported or studied.
Milksnakes are mostly crepuscular and nocturnal, although they may on occasion be active during the day, particularly during moist surface conditions. In Colorado, Milksnakes emerge from dens in April and re-enter hibernacula in mid-October (Hammerson 1999), although they have been seen as late as mid-November. The active period in Montana is poorly documented; records extend from late May to October (Montana Natural Heritage Program Point Observation Database). Predators are largely unknown, including in Montana, but Milksnakes exhibit predator defense behavior, and rear up and strike, or vibrate the tail, when disturbed, although they are usually docile when handled.
No information specific to the reproductive habits of the Milksnakes is known for Montana. Based upon information from other states, courtship and mating are believed to occur in spring, generally in May. Milksnakes lay clutches of 2 to 17 eggs; typical clutches in Colorado and adjacent areas are 4 to 6 eggs (Hammerson 1999). Eggs are laid usually in mid-June to mid-July. Eggs hatch in about 6 to 9 weeks, beginning in late August and most often in September. Some females reach sexual maturity in their 3rd or 4th year (45 to 50 centimeters snout-vent length) in Kansas (Fitch and Fleet 1970), and evidence indicates this is also the case in Colorado (Hammerson 1999). Longevity in wild populations is unreported, but captive individuals have lived more than 20 years.
So few recent Milksnake records exist for Montana (Maxell et al. 2003) that it is difficult to determine if management activity is needed. Nevertheless, the widely scattered recent records indicate that Milksnakes continue to occupy a large part of the known range in the state, and some sites near a large urban center have remained occupied for the last 40 to 45 years (Laurie Vitt, personal communication). Management for this species is hampered by a lack of basic information on abundance, food habits, and habitat associations. No specific management activities are suggested at this time, other than to protect dens and regulate or restrict commercial harvest for the pet trade.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Dood, A.R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 pp.
- Fitch, H.S. and R.R. Fleet. 1970. Natural history of the milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) in northeastern Kansas. Herpetologica 26: 387-396.
- Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. University Press of Colorado & Colorado Division of Wildlife. Denver, CO. 484 p.
- Hendricks, P. 1999a. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Bureau of Land Management Miles City District, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 80 p.
- Maxell, B.A., J.K. Werner, P. Hendricks, and D.L. Flath. 2003. Herpetology in Montana: a history, status summary, checklists, dichotomous keys, accounts for native, potentially native, and exotic species, and indexed bibliography. Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Northwest Fauna Number 5. Olympia, WA. 135 p.
- St. John, A.D. 2002. Reptiles of the northwest: California to Alaska, Rockies to the coast. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton, WA. 272 p.
- Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York. 533 p.
- Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 p.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998a. Big Sky Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
- [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998b. Spring Creek Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
- Armstrong, M. P., D. Frymire, and E. J. Zimmerer. 2001. Analysis of sympatric populations of Lampropeltis triangulum syspila and Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides, in western Kentucky and adjacent Tennessee with relation to the taxonomic status of the scarlet kingsnake. Journal of Herpetology 35:688-693.
- Badman, J.A., L. Neinaber, D.F. DeNardo, and A.T. Holycross. 2003. Milksnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum) from Cochise County: notes on captive breeding and pattern. Sonoran Herpetologist 16(2):15.
- Barten, S.L. 1981. Reproduction of Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides from Onslow County, North Carolina. Herpetological Review 12(2): 62.
- Baxter, G.T. and M.D. Stone. 1985. Amphibians and reptiles of Wyoming. Second edition. Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Cheyenne, WY. 137 p.
- Blair, K.B., H.M. Smith, and D. Chiszar. 1994. Albinism and distributional records for Lampropeltis triangulum (Reptilia: Serpentes) in Panhandle Texas. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 30(1): 1-5.
- Blatchford, D. 1985. The Jalisco milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum arcifera). Herptological Review 10(3): 85-89.
- Boundy, J. 1994a. County records for Texas amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 25(3): 129.
- Boundy, J. 1994b. Range extensions for Louisiana amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 25(3): 128-129.
- Brunson, R.B. 1955. Check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 15: 27-29.
- Carlson, J. (Coordinator, Montana Animal Species of Concern Committee). 2003. Montana Animal Species of Concern January 2003. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. In Press. 12p.
- Cavitt, J.F. 2000. Tallgrass prairie snake assemblage food habits. Herpetological Review 31(1): 47-48.
- Chiszar, D. and H.M. Smith. 1992b. Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops (New Mexico milk snake). Herpetological Review 23(4): 124.
- Cohen, H.J. 1987. Life history notes, Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis (Honduran milk snake). Maximum size. Herpetological Review 18(2): 36.
- Collins, J.T. 1991. A new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 22:42-43.
- Collins, J.T., S.L. Collins, and K.J. Irwin. 1993. Lampropeltis triangulum (milk snake). Herpetological Review 24(3): 110.
- Cope, E.D. 1861. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Part 3. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 12: 553-566.
- Cope, E.D. 1875. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U.S. National Museum. U.S. Natioanl Museum Bulletin 1: 1-104.
- Coues, E. and H. Yarrow. 1878. Notes on the herpetology of Dakota and Montana. Bulletin of the U.S. Geological Geographic Survey of the Territories 4: 259-291.
- Cox, T.M. 1983. A review of "pattern variation and evolution of the mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata" (by R.G. Zweifel) and a discussion of the relationship between L. zonata and L. triangulum. Northern Ohio Association Herpetology Notes 10(6): 14-17.
- Crother, B.I. (ed.) 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 37:1-84.
- Dowling, H. G. 1993. Viewpoint: a reply to Collins (1991, 1992). Herpetol. Rev. 24:11-13.
- Ewing, P.J., M.D. Setser, E.L. Stair, B. Waurzyniak, and R.L. Cowell. 1991. Myxosarcoma in a Sinaloan milksnake. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199(12): 1775-1776.
- Fitch, H.S. 2003b. Reproduction in snakes of the Fitch Natural History Reservation in northeastern Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 6:21-24.
- Fjell, Alan K., and Brian R. Mahan., 1987, Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1986 field season. April 1987.
- Flath, D.L. 1979. Nongame species of special interest or concern: Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes. Wildlife Division, Montana Department of Fish and Game. Helena, MT.
- Flath, D.L. 1998. Species of special interest or concern. Montana Department of Fish, Widlife and Parks, Helena, MT. March, 1998. 7 p.
- Frost, D.R. and J.T. Collins. 1988. Nomenclatural notes on reptiles of the United States. Herpetological Review 19(4): 73.
- Fuller, S. 1981. Simultaneous copulation by Mexican milk snakes. Northern Ohio Association Herpetology Notes 8(6): 7
- Fuller, S. 1982. Successful treatment of eastern milk snake (Lampropeltis t. triangulum) with "emtryl." Northern Ohio Association Herpetology Notes 10(3): 11.
- Garrett, C.M. 1992. Lampropeltis triangulum amaura (Louisiana milk snake). Herpetological Review 23(1): 27.
- Gates, M.T. 2005. Amphibian and reptile baseline survey: CX field study area Bighorn County, Montana. Report to Billings and Miles City Field Offices of Bureau of Land Management. Maxim Technologies, Billings, MT. 28pp + Appendices.
- Gertler, P.E. and J.Morales. 1980. Snake predation on Marmosa noctivaga. Journal of Mammalogy 61(2): 381.
- Gillingham, J.C., C.C. Carpenter, B.J. Brecke, and J.B. Murphy. 1977. Courtship and copulatory behavior of the Mexican milk snake, Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae (Colubridae). Southwestern Naturalist 22(2): 187-194.
- Grogan, W.L., Jr. 1985. New distributional records for Maryland reptiles and amphibians. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 21(2): 74-75.
- Groves, J.D. and P.S. Sachs. 1974. Eggs and young of the scarlet king snake, Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides. Journal of Herpetology 7(4): 389-390.
- Gurrola, H.M.A. and C.N. Chavez. 1996. Serpentes: Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni (milk snake). Predation. Herpetological Review 27(2): 83.
- Hammack, S.H. 1989. Reproduction of the Colombian milk snake, Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana at the Dallas zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 28: 172-177.
- Hayden, F.V. 1858. Catalogue of the collections in geology and natural history, obtained by the expedition under command of Lieutenant G.K. Warren, Topographical Engineers. pp. 104-105. In: F.N. Shubert (1981) Explorer on the northern plains: Lieutenant Gouverneur K. Warren's preliminary report of explorations in Nebraska and Dakota, in the years 1855-'56-'57. Engineer Historical Studies No. 2. Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, DC. 125 p.
- Hayden, F.V. 1862. On the geology and natural history of the upper Missouri. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society New Series 12(1): 1-218
- Hecht, M.K., and D. Marien. 1956. The coral snake mimic problem: a reinterpretation. Journal of Morphology. 98: 335-365.
- Hedges, S.B. 1977. The presence of the scarlet kingsnake, Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides holbrook (reptilia, serpentes, colubridae), in the Florida Keys. Herpetological Review 8(4): 125-126.
- Heinrich, M.L. and H.E. Klaassen. 1985. Side dominance in constricting snakes. Journal of Herpetology 19(4): 531-533.
- Henderson, R.W., M.H. Binder, R.A. Sajdak, and J.A. Buday. 1980. Aggregating behavior and exploitation of subterranean habitat by gravid eastern milksnakes (Lampropeltis t. triangulum). Milwaukee Public Musuem Contributions to Biology and Geology 32: 9p.
- Hendricks, P. and J.D. Reichel. 1996b. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland District, Custer National Forest: 1995. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 79 p.
- Herman, D.W. 1979. Captive reproduction in the scarlet kingsnake, Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides (Holbrook). Herpetological Review 10(4): 115.
- Hibbitts, T.D., M.P. Hibbitts, and T.J. Hibbitts. 1996. New distributional records of reptiles from western and trans-Pecos Texas, USA. Herpetological Review 27(4): 217-218.
- Hingley, K.J. 1987. The eastern milk snake: Lampropeltis t. triangulum. Snake Keeper 1(11): 4.
- Hingley, K.J. 1991. Failure to breed the Mexican milk snake, Lampropeltis triangulum annulata. Herptological Review 16(3): 123-124.
- Holycross, A.T. and C. Schwalbe. 1995. Lampropeltis triangulum (milk snake). Herpetological Review 26(1): 46.
- Howard, C.J. 1985. Husbandry and breeding of the Honduran milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis) at Twycross Zoo. Herptilological Review. 10(3): 81-84.
- Irwin, K.J. and S.L. Collins. 1996. Lampropeltis triangulum (milk snake). Herpetological Review 27(1): 34.
- Joslin, Gayle, and Heidi B. Youmans. 1999. Effects of recreation on Rocky Mountain wildlife: a review for Montana. [Montana]: Montana Chapter of the Wildlife Society.
- Kamb, A.H. 1978. Unusual feeding behavior of the red milk snake, Lampropeltis triangulum syspila (lacepede). Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 81(3): 273.
- Kennicott, R. 1860a. Descriptions of new species of North American Serpents in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12: 328-338.
- Kirkwood, J.K. and C. Gili. 1994. Food consumption in relation to bodyweight in captive snakes. Research in Veterinary Science 57(1): 35-38.
- Klaphake, E., C. Cross, S. Patton, and L. Head. 2005. Gastric impaction in a milk snake, Lampropeltris triangulaum, caused by Kalicephalus sp. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 15(1):21-23.
- Klemens, M.W. 1995. New distributional records of amphibians and reptiles from New Hampshire. Herpetological Review 26(1): 49.
- Kraus, F. and G.W. Schuett. 1981. An intergrade Lampropeltis triangulum from west Texas. Herpetological Review 12(2): 53.
- Lane, M. and D. Schwab. 1986. Field notes: Lampropeltis t. triangulum X L. t. elapsoides (coastal plains milksnake): City of Suffolk, the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Hudnell Ditch, 1.7 km S. of New Ditch. April 15, 1986. Catesbeiana 6(2): 14.
- Long, C.A., J.E. Long, and C.A. Long. 1987. A listing of known amphibians and reptiles from Washington Island, Lake Michigan, with new records of the milk snake and red-bellied snake. Jack-Pine Warbler 65(3-4): 39.
- Martin, P.R. 1980b. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas of Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 84 p.
- Martin, P.R., K. Dubois and H.B. Youmans. 1981. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas, Powder River resources area final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. No. YA-553-CTO- 24. 288 p.
- Matthews, W.L. 1981. Broadus-Pumpkin Creek baseline inventory - wildlife. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 83 p.
- McAllister, C.T., R. Ward, and K.L. Williams. 1987. Noteworthy milk snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum) from Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 32(3): 406-408.
- McCrystal, H.K., R.H. Dean, and J.R. Dixon. 1984. Lampropeltis triangulum annulata (Mexican milk snake). Size. Herpetological Review 15(1): 19.
- McEneaney, T. and J. Jensen. 1974. The reptiles and amphibians of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range - 1974. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge. Lewistown, MT. 3 p.
- Mendoza, Q.F. and H.A. Ruiz-Pina. 1995. Serpentes: Lampropeltis triangulum smithi. (Smith's Milk Snake). Prey. Herpetological Review 26(3): 148-149.
- Mendoza, Q.F. and Y.C.A. Rodriguez. 1992. Lampropeltis triangulum smithi (NCN). Size. Herpetological Review 23(4): 120.
- Michaels, S.J. 1989. Some observations on multiple egg clutches and a case of delayed fertilization in a colony of captive Pueblan milk snakes, Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 24(6): 109-111.
- Miller, R. and G. Grall. 1978. Reproductive data on Lampropeltis triangulum temporalis from Maryland. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 14(1): 36-38.
- Mitchell, J.C. 1980. Notes on Lampropeltis triangulum (Colubridae) from northern Jalisco, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 25(2): 269.
- Mount, R.H. 1986b. Eastern milk snake. pp 68-69. In: Mount, R.H. [Ed.] Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of special attention. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. 124 p.
- Mount, R.H. 1986d. Red milk snake. pp. 69 In: Mount, R.H. [Ed.] Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of special attention. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. 124 p.
- Nelson, D.J. 1948. Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis in Montana. Herpetologica 4:170.
- Nelson, D.J. 1950. Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis in Montana. Herpetologica 6:41.
- Norrie, S.G. 1985. Comparisons between the natural and captive environments of the Sinaloan milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae). Herptilological Review 10(3): 90-92.
- Painter, C.W. and R.D. Jennings. 1996. Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops (New Mexico milk snake). Herpetological Review 27(4): 213.
- Parmley, D. 1994. Reevaluation of the extinct kingsnake Lampropeltis intermedius Brattstrom (Colubridae) with comments on the ancestry of Lampropeltis triangulum. Herpetological Natural History 2(2): 83-84.
- Perez-Higareda, G. and H.M. Smith. 1987. Geographic distribution, Lampropeltis triangulum polyzona (Veracruz milk snake). Herpetological Review 18(2): 41.
- Peters, J.A., and M.B. Orejas. 1986. Part 1. Snakes. Peters, J.A., Donoso-Barros, R., Orejas-Miranda, B. & Vanzolini, P.E. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. & London. 347 p.
- Peterson, K.H., D. Lazcano, G.R.D. Jacobo. 1995. Captive reproduction in the Mexican milksnake Lampropeltis triangulum annulata. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 15(5): 128-132.
- Quinn, H.R. 1983. Two new subspecies of Lampropeltis triangulum from Mexico. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 86(1): 113-135.
- Rau, M.E., J. Doyle, and D. Gordon. 1978. The parasites of the wild animals of Quebec. 2. The parasites of frogs and snakes of the Ile Perrot region. [Les parasites des animaux sauvages du Quebec. 2. Les parasites des grenouilles et des serpents de la region de I'ile Perrot.]. Natural Canadian 105(1): 56-57.
- Rehak, I. 1985. The scarlet king snake Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides. Akvarium Terrarium 28(4): 31-32.
- Rehak, I. 1988. On the species of king snake Lampropeltis triangulum. Akvarium Terarium 31(2): 24-25.
- Rehak, I. 1990a. Bionomics of Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis in captivity. Akvarium Terarium 33(7): 24-26.
- Reichel, J. and D. Flath. 1995. Identification of Montana's amphibians and reptiles. Montana Outdoors 26(3):15-34.
- Rodríguez, M.C. and H. Drummond. 2000. Exploitation of avian nestlings and lizards by insular Milksnakes, Lampropeltis triangulum. Journal of Herpetology 34(1):139-142.
- Roedel, M.D. and P. Hendricks. 1998a. Amphibian and reptile survey on the Bureau of Land Management Lewistown District: 1995-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 53 p.
- Roedel, M.D. and P. Hendricks. 1998b. Amphibian and reptile inventory on the Headwaters and Dillon Resource Areas in conjunction with Red Rocks Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: 1996-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 46 p.
- Roth, J.J. and H.M. Smith. 1990b. The milksnake, Lampropeltis triangulum, in northwest Colorado. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 25(1): 6-7.
- Schaefer, K., D. Chiszar, and H.M. Smith. 1995. Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis (central plains milk snake). Herpetological Review 26(2): 110.
- Schuett, G.W. 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum (milk snake). Herpetological Review 25(4): 167.
- Setser, K.W., D.G. Mulcahy, and B.L. Williams. 2003. Lampropeltis triangulum (Milk Snake). Herpetological Review 34(2):150.
- Sharp, S. and M. Dobson. 1993. The Honduran milksnake, Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis. Herptological Review 18(2): 65-68.
- Smith, H.M., C. Ristau, T. Bell, M. Bell, and D. Chiszar. 1995. Serpentes: Lampropelitis triangulum multistriata X Taylori (pale X Utah milk snake intergrade). Herpetological Review 26(4): 210.
- Smith, K.G. 2001. Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum (Eastern milk snake) antipredator behavior. Herpetological Review 32(4): 263-264.
- Strimple, P. 1991. Captive reproduction in the scarlet kingsnake, Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides (Holbrook, 1838). Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 11(3): 50-52.
- Tanner, W.W. and R.B. Loomis. 1957. A taxonomic and distributional study of the western subspecies of the milk snake, Lampropeltis doliata. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 60(1): 12-42.
- Tryon, B.W. and J.B. Murphy. 1982. Miscellaneous notes on the reproductive biology of reptiles. 5. Thirteen varieties of the genus Lampropeltis, species mexicana, triangulum and zonata. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 85(2): 96-119.
- Upton, S.J., C.T. McAllister, P.S. Freed, and S.M. Barnard. 1989. Cryptosporidium spp. in wild and captive reptiles. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(1): 20-30.
- Van der Rijst, H. 1992. A colourful mistake. On coral snakes, king snakes and Erythrolamprus. Nordisk Herpetologisk Forening 35(1): 4-7.
- Van Devender, R.W. and P.F. Nicoletto. 1983. Lower Wilson Creek, Caldwell County, North Carolina (USA): A thermal refugium for reptiles? Brimleyana 0(9): 21-32.
- Vance, T. 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum amaura (Louisiana milk snake). Herpetological Review 25(2): 77.
- Vitt, L.J., J.P. Caldwell, and D.B. Shepard. 2005. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the Billings Field Office Region, Montana. Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. 33 pp.
- Vojtisek, V. 1994. Incubation of the eggs of Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae. Akvarium Terarium 37(7): 34-37.
- Vojtisek, V. 1995. Periodic molting in the milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae. Akvarium Terarium 38(6): 32-33.
- Waage, B.C. 1998. Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine 1997 annual wildlife monitoring report December 1, 1996 to November 30, 1997 survey period. Western Energy Company, Colstrip, MT.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1992, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1991 Field Season. December 1992.
- Wagner, E. 1982. Lampropeltis triangulum (milk snake). Coloration. Herpetological Review 13(1): 18.
- Weinstein, S.A., C.F. Dewitt, and L.A. Smith. 1992. Variability of venom-neutralizing properties of serum from snakes of the colubrid genus Lampropeltis. Journal of Herpetology 26(4): 452-461.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks and D.L. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Montana. Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT. 262 pp.
- Whipple, J.F. and J.T. Collins. 1988. First complete clutch record for the central plains milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis) in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 91(3-4): 187-188.
- Williams, K.I. 1994. Reptilia:Squamata:Serpentes:Colubridae:Lampropeltis triangulum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles :594. 1994. 1-10.
- Williams, K.L. 1970. Systematics of the colubrid snake Lampropeltis triangulum Lacepede. Ph.D. Thesis, Louisiana State University; 369 p.
- Williams, K.L. 1978. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake, Lampropeltis triangulum. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions to Biology & Geology 2:1-258.
- Williams, K.L. 1989. Systematics and natural history of the American milksnake, Lampropeltis triangulum. Second revised edition. 192 pp.
- Williams, K.L. 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 594.1-594.10.
- Winstel, A. 1987. Captive breeding and rearing of the eastern milk snake, Lampropeltis t. triangulum. Northern Ohio Association Herpetology Notes 15(1): 9-10.
- Winstel, A. 1991. Captive husbandry of the eastern milk snake (Lampropeltis t. triangulum). Vivarium 2(6): 16-17, 28.
- Yarrow, H.C. 1882. Check list of North American reptilia and batrachia, with catalogue of specimens in the U.S. National Museum. United States National Museum Bulletin 24. 249 p.
- Yeomans, L. 1988. Care and breeding of the Honduran milk snake - (Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis) - and a case of dicephalism. Herpetological Review 13(1): 5-8.
- Web Search Engines for Articles on "Western Milksnake"
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Reptiles"