Big Brown Bat - Eptesicus fuscus
Big Brown Bat is among the more common species found in Montana. As the common name suggests, this is a relatively large species with dark brown to blond fur. Like the Little Brown Myotis (M. lucifigus), this species readily exploits man-made structures as roosts which make it among the more commonly encountered species in Montana. Big Brown Bats are found state-wide, and are most common where suitable roost structures exist such as buildings and rock outcrops. Across the state the species has been observed at 1,251 locations. Although this is significantly less that several other species, Big Brown Bat is more difficult to identify using acoustics which decreases the number of observations.
Big Brown Bat is a larger bat with overall brown to copper-colored fur. The muzzle is distinctively round and dark. Forearm length is 43-52mm. The uropatagium is unfurred on the posterior half and a keel is present on the calcar.
Big Brown Bats superficially resemble Myotis bats found in Montana, but can easily be distinguished by size. Even juvenile Big Brown Bats are larger than almost all Myotis except for exceptionally large Fringed Myotis (M. thysanodes, Bachen et al. 2018). Adult Big Brown Bats typically have dark brown membranes, and uniform pelage that varies from dark brown to blond. Adults typically have forearm lengths between 43 and 49 mm and weigh between 14 and 25 gr. Ears are relatively short and range from 11 to 15 mm. Forearm and weight should be used to separate this species from all Myotis. Other larger species of bats should be differentiated by general appearance. Some such as the Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus) can be differentiated by pillage pattern. Bats with uniform colored fur such as the Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus) and Townsend’s Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) have much longer ears.
Western Hemisphere Range
Big Brown Bat is found state-wide. However, the species is much less common across the grasslands of north central Montana likely due to lower roost densities.
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Migration of Big Brown Bat has not been studied in Montana. Elsewhere movement of up to 80 km between summer and winter roosts have been documented (Mills et al. 1975). Few hibernaculum have been documented in the state (Bachen et al. 2019), but the species is known to use rock crevices in to overwinter in Alberta (Lausen and Barclay 2006), and may do so in parts of Montana as well (Bachen et al. 2020a). The species is also active during the winter across much of the state (Bachen et al. 2018), which may indicate that suitable overwintering sites are relatively common and if migration occurs, it is local rather than regional or continental.
Big Brown Bat is a generalist species and is found across Montana in a diversity of ecosystems including forests, shrublands, and grasslands. The only limiting factor appears to be suitable roost features, but given that the species roosts in trees, man-made structures, and rock outcrops (Bachen et al. 2019) roosts are rarely limiting in most areas.
During the active season the species has been found using cracks and crevices in rock outcrops, man- made structures such as bridges and buildings, caves, and trees. Maternity colonies in Montana have been found in buildings, bridges, and snags (Swenson and Shanks 1979, Bachen et al. 2019). Winter hibernaculum are poorly documented for this species. Few individuals have been found using caves (Bachen et al. 2019). In southeast Montana a south-facing rock outcrop was associated with activity across the winter, but roosting animals could not be directly observed (Bachen et al. 2020a). In badlands similar to many areas of eastern Montanan, the species is known to use rock crevices and erosion cavities (Lausen and Barclay 2006).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: mtnhp.org/requests
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Big Brown Bat consumes a diversity of insect types and species. Stomach contents analysis of 29 specimens from Carter County yielded a variety of insects including: Cleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Odoncata, and Trichoptera (Jones et al. 1973). Across the species range Coleoptera are significant portion of this species diet (Kurta and Baker 1990) and Lepidoptera compose a greater proportion of diet in western North America than eastern North America (Moosman et al. 2012).
In Montana activity decreases in October and animals likely hibernate from late October through March or April. Low levels of winter activity are associated with this species, although the purpose of these flights during cold weather are not known. Breeding occurs in the fall or winter and females likely give birth to a single pup (Kurta and Baker 1990), although this has not been studied in Montana specifically. Based on capture data young are born in mid-June with the first flighted young observed in mid- July (Bachen et al. 2017). Longevity has not been studied in Montana specifically, but the species has been observed to live up to 19 years in the wild (Paradiso and Greenhall 1967).
Mating can occur anytime between September and March. In Montana, females have one young, usually born in late June. Young become capable of independent flight in 3-4 weeks.
Threats to this species are likely to operate on the local and regional scales. Big Brown Bats are impacted by White-Nose Syndrome (White-Nose Syndrome Response Team 2020). Further study of impacts in Montana will be required to determine if this disease will drive significant declines in Montana.
Mortalities of this species have not been documented at wind energy sites in Montana (Poulton and Erickson 2010, Linnell and Smucker 2019), but the species is occasionally killed in other areas of the country (AWWI 2018). In Montana roost destruction and disturbance is of great concern given the species use of man-made structures. In addition to impacts on local colonies due to intentional or unintentional removal, in at least one instance a colony was subject to poisoning through the application of DDT (Buchwitz et al. 2018).
Management of the species at the local scale should focus on education about best practices for colony removal, for example conducting work or sealing roosts during the winter to avoid destruction of maternity colonies and pup mortality. Continued monitoring of Big Brown Bat Populations should also be conducted to quantify impacts of WNS.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Abernethy, I.M., M.D. Andersen, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration year 2 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West: natural history, ecology and conservation. University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO. 289 pp.
- Adams, R.A., S.C. Pedersen, K.M. Thibault, J. Jadin, and B. Petru. 2003. Calcium as a Limiting Resource to Insectivorous Bats: Can Water Holes Provide a Supplemental Mineral Source. Journal of Zoology 260(2): 189-194.
- Agnarsson, I., C.M. Zambrana-Torrelio, N.P. Flores-Saldana, L.J. May-Collado. 2011. A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia). PLoS Currents Tree of Life. Edition1. RRN1212.
- Agosta, S.J. 2002. Habitat use, diet, and roost selection by the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus ) in North America: a case for conserving an abundant species. Mammal Review 32(3): 179-198.
- Agosta, S.J. and D. Morton. 2003. Diet of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, from Pennsylvania and western Maryland. Northeastern Naturalist 10(1): 89.
- Agosta, S.J., D. Morton, and K.M. Kuhn. 2003. Feeding ecology of the bat Eptesicus fuscus: 'Preferred' prey abundance as one factor influencing prey selection and diet breadth. Journal of Zoology 260(2): 169-177.
- Agosta, S.J., D. Morton, B.D. Marsh, and K.M. Kuhn. 2005. Nightly, Seasonal, and Yearly Patterns of Bat Activity at Night Roosts in the Central Appalachians. Journal of Mammalogy 86(6): 1210-1219.
- Amichai, E., G. Blumrosen, and Y. Yovel. 2015. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1821): 20152064.
- Arbuthnott, D. and R.M. Brigham. 2007. The influence of a local temperature inversion on the foraging behaviour of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. Acta Chiropterologica 9(1): 193-201.
- Arnett, E.B. 2007. Presence, relative abundance, and resource selection of bats in managed forest landscapes in western Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
- Arnett, E.B. and J.P. Hayes. 2009. Use of Conifer Snags as Roosts by Female Bats in Western Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 73(2): 214-225.
- Bachen, D.A., A.L. McEwan, B.O. Burkholder, S.L. Hilty, S.A. Blum, and B.A. Maxell.. 2018. Bats of Montana: Identification and Natural History. Report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 111pp.
- Bachen, D.A., and B.A. Maxell. 2014. Distribution and status of bird, small mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, South Dakota Field Office-BLM. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, South Dakota Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana 25 pp. plus appendices.
- Baker, R.H. and C.J. Phillips. 1965. Mammals from El Nevado de Colima, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 46(4): 691-693.
- Barchi, J.R., J.M. Knowles, and J.A. Simmons. 2013. Spatial memory and stereotypy of flight paths by big brown bats in cluttered surroundings. Journal of Experimental Biology 216(6): 1053-1063.
- Barclay, R.M.R. 1991. Population Structure of Temperate Zone Insectivorous Bats in Relation to Foraging Behavior and Energy Demand. Journal of Animal Ecology 60(1): 165.
- Bat Conservation International. G4 Harp Trap: Assembly and Advice. 8 p.
- Bates, M.E., S.A. Stamper, and J.A. Simmons. 2008. Jamming avoidance response of big brown bats in target detection. Journal of Experimental Biology 211(1): 106-113.
- Baxter, D.M., J.M. Psyllakis, M.P. Gillingham, and E.L. O'Brien. 2006. Behavioural response of bats to perceived predation risk while foraging. Ethology 112(10): 977-983.
- Bell, J.F., D.L. Lodmell, G.J. Moore and G.H. Raymond. 1966. Rabies virus isolation from a bat in Montana in midwinter. Public Health Reports. Vol 81/No 8. 2 pp.
- Bell, J.F., G.J. Moore, G.H. Raymond, and C.E. Tibbs. 1962. Characteristics of Rabies in Bats in Montana. American Journal of Public Health 52(8): 1293-1301.
- Bell, J.F., W.J. Hadlow and W.L. Jellison. 1957. A survey of chiropteran rabies in western Montana. Public Health Reports. 72(1): 16-18.
- Bender, M.J. and G.D. Hartman. 2015. Bat Activity Increases with Barometric Pressure and Temperature During Autumn in Central Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 14(2): 231-242.
- Bender, M.J., S.B. Castleberry, D.A. Miller, and T.B. Wigley. 2015. Site occupancy of foraging bats on landscapes of managed pine forest. Forest Ecology & Management 336: 1-10.
- Berthinussen, A. and J. Altringham. 2012. The effect of a major road on bat activity and diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 82-89.
- Betts, B.J. 1998. Effects of interindividual variation in echolocation calls on identification of big brown and silver-haired bats. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(3): 1003-1010.
- Black, H.L. 1976. American kestrel predation on the bats Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, and Tadarida brasiliensis. The Southwestern Naturalist, 21(2): 250-251.
- Bogan, M.A., and K. Geluso. 1999. Bat roosts and historic structures on National Park Service lands in the Rocky Mountain region. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Geological Survey, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, Dept. of Biology, the University of New Mexico. Unpublished report. 25 pp
- Booher, C. 2008. Effects of calcium availability on reproductive output of big brown bats. Journal of Zoology 274(1): 38-43.
- Brennan, R.E., W. Caire, N. Pugh, S. Chapman, A.H. Robbins, and D.E. Akiyoshi. 2015. Examination of bats in western Oklahoma for antibodies against Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of White-Nose Syndrome. Southwestern Naturalist 60(2/3): 145-150.
- Brigham, R.M. 1987. The significance of winter activity by the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus): the influence of energy reserves. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:1240-1242.
- Brigham, R.M. 1991. Flexibility in foraging and roosting behaviour by the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:117-121.
- Brigham, R.M. and M.B. Fenton. 1986. The influence of roost closure on the roosting and foraging behavior of Eptesicus fuscus (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae). Canadian Jounal of Zoology 64:1128-1133.
- British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. 1998. Inventory Methods for Bats; Standards for Components of British Columbia's Biodiversity No. 20. Prepared for the Terrestrial Ecosystems Task Force Resources Inventory Committee. Version 2.0. 58 p.
- Brittingham, M.C. and L.M. Williams. 2000. Bat Boxes as Alternative Roosts for Displaced Bat Maternity Colonies. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 28(1): 197-207.
- Brooks, R.T. W.M. Ford. 2005. Bat Activity in a Forest Landscape of Central Massachusetts. Northeastern Naturalist 12(4): 447-462.
- Buchler, E.R. and S.B. Childs. 1982. Use of the Post-Sunset Glow as an Orientation Cue by Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Journal of Mammalogy. 63(2): 243-247.
- Burnett, C.D. and T.H. Kunz. 1982. Growth Rates and Age Estimation in Eptesicus fuscus and Comparison with Myotis lucifugus. Journal of Mammalogy. 63(1): 33-41.
- Butts, T. 1997. Bat surveys Indian Creek Canyon, Elkhorn Mountains, Montana. Continental Divide Wildlife Consulting. Helena, MT 32 pg.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A preliminary survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest, Montana: 1991. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 35 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest Montana: 1992. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 39 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Townsend Ranger District, Helena National Forest, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 16 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. Azure Cave bat surveys, Little Rocky Mountains, Montana, September 1992 and March 1993. Unpublished report for Zortman Mining, Inc. 13 pp.
- Callahan, E.V. and R.D. Drobney. 1997. Selection of summer roosting sites by Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in Missouri. Journal of Mammalogy 78(3): 818.
- Carlson, J.C. and P. Hendricks. 2001. A Proposal for: Bat Use of Highway Structures: A Pilot Study. Submitted to the Montana Department of Transportation.
- Carlson, J.C. and S.V. Cooper. 2003. Plant and Animal Resources and Ecological Condition of the Forks Ranch Unit of the Padlock Ranch, Big Horn County, Montana and Sheridan County, Wyoming. Unpublished report to The Nature Conservancy Montana Field Office.
- Carroll, S.K., T.C. Carter, and G.A. Feldhamer. 2002. Placement of nets for bats: Effects on perceived fauna. Southeastern Naturalist 1(2): 193-198.
- Ceballos-Vasquez, A., J.R. Caldwell, and P.A. Faure. 2015. Seasonal and reproductive effects on wound healing in the flight membranes of captive big brown bats. Biology Open 4(1): 95-103.
- Chen, C., P.V. Reddy, X. Wei, P.S. Krishnaprasad, and C.F. Moss. 2010. Effects of competitive prey capture on flight behavior and sonar beam pattern in paired big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(19): 3348-3356.
- Chen, C., X. Wei, and C.F. Moss. 2008. Flying in silence: Echolocating bats cease vocalizing to avoid sonar jamming. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America 105(35): 13116-13121.
- Chen, C., X. Wei, and C.F. Moss. 2009. Adaptive echolocation behavior in bats for the analysis of auditory scenes. Journal of Experimental Biology 212(9): 1392-1404.
- Chester, J.M., N.P. Campbell, K. Karsmizki, and D. Wirtz. 1979. Resource inventory and evaluation. Azure Cave, Montana. BLM unpublished report. 55 pp.
- Choate, J. R. and J. M. Anderson. 1997. Bats of Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 29:39-47.
- Christy, R. E. and S. W. West. 1993. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests. U.S.D.A., Forest Serv., Pac. Northw. res. Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-308.
- Chung-MacCoubrey, A.L. 2005. Use of pinyon–juniper woodlands by bats in New Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 204: 209–220.
- Clare, E.L., W.C. Symondson, and M.B. Fenton. 2014. An inordinate fondness for beetles? Variation in seasonal dietary preferences of night-roosting big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Molecular Ecology 23(15): 3633-3647.
- Clement, M.J., J.M. O'Keefe, and B. Walters. 2015. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. Ecosphere 6(10): 184.
- Clement, M.J., T.J. Rodhouse, P.C. Ormsbee, J.M. Szewczak, and J.D. Nichols. 2014. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(5): 1460-1467.
- Cockrum, E.L., B. Musgrove, and Y. Peteryszyn. 1996. Bats of Mohave County, Arizona: populations and movements. Occasional Papers of The Museum, Texas Tech University 157: 1-71.
- Coleman, J.L. and R.R. Barclay. 2013. Prey availability and foraging activity of grassland bats in relation to urbanization. Journal of Mammalogy 94(5): 1111-1122.
- Coleman, L.S., W.M. Ford, C.A. Dobony, and E.R. Britzke. 2014. A Comparison of Passive and Active Acoustic Sampling for a Bat Community Impacted by White-Nose Syndrome. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 5(2): 217-226.
- Corbett, J. 2011. Evaluation and management of select natural cave and abandoned mine features of the Lewis and Clark and Helena National Forests, Montana. Bat Conservation International. 18pp plus appendices.
- Cox, M.R., E.V. Willcox, P.D. Keyser, and A.L. Vander Yacht. 2016. Bat response to prescribed fire and overstory thinning in hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee. Forest Ecology and Management 359: 221-231.
- Cross, S.P. and W. Huibregtse. 1964. Unusual Roosting Site of Eptesicus fuscus. Journal of Mammalogy 45(4): 628-628.
- Cryan, P. M., M. A. Bogan, and J. S. Altenbach. 2000. Effect of elevation on distribution of female bats in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 81:719-725.
- Cryan, P.M., M.A. Bogan, G.M. Yanega. 2001. Roosting habits of four bat species in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Acta Chiropterologica 3(1): 43-52.
- Cvikel, N., E. Levin, E. Hurme, I. Borissov, A. Boonman, E. Amichai, and Y. Yovel. 2015. On-board recordings reveal no jamming avoidance in wild bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1798).
- Davis, R. 1966. Homing performance and homing ability in bats. Ecological Monographs 36(3): 201-237.
- Davis, W.B. 1937. Some mammals from western Montana and eastern Idaho. The Murrelet 18(2): 22-27.
- Davis, W.H., R.W. Barbour, and M.D. Hassell. 1968. Colonial behavior of Eptesicus fuscus. Journal of Mammalogy 49(1): 44-50.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part I: Control. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2. 6 p.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part II: Identification and Biology. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2A. 10 p.
- Diamond, J.M., R.N. Gwinn, J. Johnson, H. Telle, and G.F. Diamond. 2015. Population characteristics of big brown bat and Arizona myotis using artificial roosting structures in northern Arizona. Western North American Naturalist 75(1): 115-126.
- Dood, A.R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 pp.
- Dubois, K. 1999. Region 4 bat surveys: 1998 progress report. Unpublished report, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Region 4 Headquarters, Great Falls, Montana. 20 pp.
- DuBois, K. 2000. Species occurrence and Distribution of Bats in North Central Montana: Range Map Changes Resulting from Two Years of Field Surveys. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 6(4): 376.
- Ducummon, S.L. 1997. The North American bats and mines project: a cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation. Paper presented at the 1997 National Meeting of the American Society for Mining and Reclamation, Austin, Texas.
- Duff, A.A. and T.E. Morrell. 2007. Predictive Occurrence Models for Bat Species in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(3): 693-700.
- Easterla, D. A. 1973. Ecology of the 18 species of Chiroptera at Big Bend National Park, Texas. Part I and II. Northwest Missouri State University Studies 34:1-165.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1979, including a special raptor research study. Proj. 216-85-A. March 1, 1980.
- Ellison, L.E., T.J. O'Shea, D.J. Neubaum, and R.A. Bowen. 2007. Factors Influencing Movement Probabilities of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Buildings. Ecological Applications 17(2): 620-627.
- Ellison, L.E., T.J. O'Shea, D.J. Neubaum, M.A. Neubaum, R.D. Pearce, R.A. Bowen. 2007. A comparison of conventional capture versus PIT reader techniques for estimating survival and capture probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Acta Chiropterologica 9(1): 149-160.
- Emerson, G.L., R. Nordhausen, M.M. Garner, J.R. Huckabee, S. Johnson, R.D. Wohrle, W.B. Davidson, K. Wilkins, Y. Li, J.B. Doty, N.F. Gallardo-Romero, M.G. Metcalfe, K.L. Karem, I.K. Damon, and D.S. Carroll. 2013. Novel Poxvirus in Big Brown Bats, Northwestern United States. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation 33(2): 7-10.
- Everette, A.L., T.J. O'Shea, L.E. Ellison, L.A. Stone, and J.L. McCance. 2001. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(3): 967-973.
- Faure, P.A., D.E. Re, and E.L. Clare. 2009. Wound Healing in the Flight Membranes of Big Brown Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 90(5): 1148-1156.
- Feigley, H.P. 1998. An Examination of the Issues and Feasibility of Conducting Surveys of Abandoned Mines for Bats. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Feigley, H.P., M. Brown, S. Martinez, and K. Schletz. 1997.Assessment of mines for importance to bat species of concern, southwestern Montana. Report to: U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center; 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400. 9pp.
- Feldhamer, G.A., T.C. Carter, and J.O. Whitaker Jr. 2009. Prey Consumed by Eight Species of Insectivorous Bats from Southern Illinois. American Midland Naturalist 162(1): 43-51.
- Fenton, M. B. 1972. Distribution and over-wintering of Myotis leibii and Eptesicus fuscus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum,, Life Sciences Occas. Pap. (21):1-8.
- Fenton, M. B., H. G Merriam, and G L. Holroyd. 1983. Bats of Kootenay, Glacier, and Mount Revelstoke national parks in Canada: identification by echolocation calls, distribution, and biology. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61 :2503-2508.
- Fenton, M.B. 1990. The Foraging Behavior and Ecology of Animal-Eating Bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(3): 411-422.
- Fenton, M.B. 2003. Science and the conservation of bats: where to next? Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(1) 6-15.
- Fenton, M.B., M.D. Skowronski, L.P. McGuire, and P.A. Faure. 2011. Variation in the use of harmonics in the calls of laryngeally echolocating bats. Acta Chiropterologica 13(1): 169-178.
- Ferrara, F.J. and P.L. Leberg. 2005. Influence of investigator disturbance and temporal variation on surveys of bats roosting under bridges. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(3): 1113-1122.
- Ford, W.M., E.R. Britzke, C.A. Dobony, J.L. Rodrigue, and L.B. Johnson. 2011. Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 2(2): 125-134.
- Ford, W.M., M.A. Menzel, J.L. Rodrigue, J.M. Menzel, and J.B. Johnson. 2005. Relating bat species presence to simple habitat measures in a central Appalachian forest. Biological Conservation 126(4): 528-539.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. American Society of Mammalogists, Special Publication Number 12. Lawrence, KS. 278 pp.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Frank, C.L., A. Michalski, A.A. McDonough, M. Rahimian, R.J. Rudd, and C. Herzog. 2014. The Resistance of a North American Bat Species (Eptesicus fuscus) to White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). PloS one 9(12): e113958.
- Gehrt, S.D. and J.E. Chelsvig. 2004. Species-specific patterns of bat activity in an urban landscape. Ecological Applications 14(2): 625-635.
- Geluso, K. 2006. Bats in a human-made forest of central Nebraska. The Prairie Naturalist 38(1): 13-23.
- Geluso, K. 2007. Winter activity of bats over water and along flyways in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 52(4): 482-492.
- Geluso, K., and L.N. Mink. 2009. Use of Bridges by Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist, 54(4), 421-429.
- Genoways, H. H., and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1972. Mammals from southwestern North Dakota. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University 6:1-36.
- Genter, D. L. 1986. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves. Great Basin Naturalist 46(2):241-244.
- Genter, D.L. and K.A. Jurist. 1995. Bats of Montana. Guide for Assessing Mines for Bats Workshop, June 14-15, 1995, Helena, MT, hosted by Montana Department of State Lands and the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 11 pp.
- Gilbert, A.T., G.F. McCracken, L.L. Sheeler, L.I. Muller, D. O’Rourke, W.J. Kelch, and J.C. New Jr. 2015. Rabies surveillance among bats in Tennessee, USA, 1996-2010. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51(4): 821-832.
- Gillam, E.H., T.J. O'Shea, and R.M. Brigham. 2011. Nonrandom patterns of roost emergence in big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. Journal of Mammalogy 92(6): 1253-1260.
- Goehring, H.H. 1972. Twenty-year Study of Eptesicus fuscus in Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 53(1): 201-207.
- Goehring, H.H. 1972. Twenty-year study of Eptesicus fuscus in Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 53(1): 201-207.
- Grilliot, M.E., S.C. Burnett, and M.T. Mendonça. 2009. Sexual Dimorphism in Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus) Ultrasonic Vocalizations is Context Dependent. Journal of Mammalogy 90(1): 203-209.
- Grilliot, M.E., S.C. Burnett, and M.T. Mendonça. 2014. Sex and Season Differences in the Echolocation Pulses of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and Their Relation to Mating Activity. Acta Chiropterologica 16(2): 379-386.
- Griscom, H.R. and D.A. Keinath. 2011. Inventory and status of bats at Devils Tower National Monument. Report prepared for the USDI National Park Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Griscom, H.R., M.D. Anderson, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration, year 1 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Hagen, E.M. and J.L. Sabo. 2011. A landscape perspective on bat foraging along rivers: does channel confinement and insect availability influence the response of bats to aquatic resources in riverine landscapes? Oecologia 166(3): 751-760.
- Halsall, A.L., J.G. Boyles, and J.O. Whitaker Jr. 2012. Body temperature patterns of big brown bats during winter in a building hibernaculum. Journal of Mammalogy 93(2): 497-503.
- Hamilton, I.M. and R.M. Barclay. 1998. Diets in juvenile, yearling, and adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in southeastern Alberta. Journal of Mammalogy 79(3): 764.
- Hamilton, I.M. and R.M.R. Barclay. 1994. Patterns of daily torpor and day-roost selection by male and female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:744-749.
- Hanauska-Brown, L., B.A. Maxell, A. Petersen, and S. Story. 2014. Diversity Monitoring in Montana 2008 – 2010 Final Report. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. Helena, MT. 78 pp.
- Harmata, A., D. Flath, R. Hazlewood, and S. Milodragovich. 2002. Initial Site Evaluation for Wind Resource Development in Montana: An Index Relative to Potential Impacts on Vertebrate Wildlife. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 8(4): 253-254.
- Harvey, M.J., J.S. Altenbach, and T.L. Best. 2011. Bats of the United States and Canada. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. p. 202
- Hein, C.D., S.B. Castleberry, and K.V. Miller. 2009. Site-occupancy of bats in relation to forested corridors. Forest Ecology and Management 257(4): 1200-1207.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Preliminary bat inventory of caves and abandoned mines on BLM lands, Judith Mountains, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 21 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1997. Mine assessments for bat activity, Garnet Resource Area, BLM: 1997. Unpublished report to USDI, Bureau of Land Management. 17pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1998. Bats surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1997-1998. November 1998.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Effect of gate installation on continued use by bats of four abandoned mine workings in western Montana. Unpublished report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Mine Assessments for Bat Activity, Helena National Forest: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in the Philipsburg, Montana area: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.13pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Bat survey along the Norris-Madison Junction Road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 15pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2003. Assessment of Selected Abandoned Mines for Use by Bats in the Garnet and Avon Areas: 2002. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Hendricks, P. and B.A. Maxell. 2005. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region Lands in Montana: 2005. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P. and D. Kampwerth. 2001. Roost environments for bats using abandoned mines in southwestern Montana : a preliminary assessment. Report to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 19 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and D.L. Genter. 1997. Bat surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 25 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and J.C. Carlson. 2001. Bat use of abandoned mines in the Pryor Mountains. Report to the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Mine Waste Cleanup Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 8 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and L.M. Hendricks. 2010. Water Aquistion During Daylight by Free-Ranging Myotis Bats. Northwestern Naturalist 91(3): 336-338.
- Hendricks, P., B.A. Maxell, S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2006. Riparian Bat Surveys in Eastern Montana. A report to the USDI Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P., C. Currier, and J. Carlson. 2004. Bats of the BLM Billings Field Office in south-central Montana, with emphasis on the Pryor Mountains. Report to Bureau of Land Management Billings Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 19 pp. + appendices.
- Hendricks, P., D. Kampwerth and M. Brown. 1999. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in southwestern Montana: 1997-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 29 pp.
- Hendricks, P., D. L. Genter, and S. Martinez. 2000. Bats of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains, Montana. Canadian Field-Naturalist 114 :89-97.
- Hendricks, P., K. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Sioux District, Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 41 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter and J.D. Reichel. 1996. Bats of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 99 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana: 1994. MTNHP report.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2005. Bat Use of Highway Bridges in South-Central Montana. FHWA/MT-05-007/8159. Final Report prepared for the Montana Department of Transportation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, prepared by the Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier, and B.A. Maxell. 2007. Filling the distribution gaps for small mammals in Montana. Helena, MT.: Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, D.M. Stagliano, and B.A. Maxell. 2013. Baseline nongame wildlife surveys on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Report to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 83 p.
- Hendricks, Paul. 2012. Winter Records of Bats in Montana. Northwestern Naturalist. 93:154-162.
- Hill J.E. and J.D. Smith: 1984. Bats: a natural history. Univ. Texas Press Austin. 243 pp.
- Hinman, K.E. and T.K. Snow, eds. 2003. Arizona Bat Conservation Strategic Plan. Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program Technical Report 213. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
- Hitchcock, H. B. 1949. Hibernation of bats in southeastern Ontario and adjacent Quebec. The Canadian Field Naturalist 63(2):47-59.
- Hoffmann, R. S., D. L. Pattie and J. F. Bell. 1969. The distribution of some mammals in Montana. II. Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 50(4): 737-741.
- Holland, R.A., K. Thorup, M.J. Vonhof, W.W. Cochran, and M. Wikelski. 2006. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field. Nature 444(7120): 702.
- Holroyd, S.L., V.J. Craig, and P. Govindarajulu. 2016. Best Management Practices for Bats in British Columbia. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 301pp.
- Hood, W., O. Oftedal, and T. Kunz. 2006. Variation in body composition of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) during lactation. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology 176(8): 807-819.
- Hulgard, K., C.F. Moss, L. Jakobsen, and A. Surlykke. 2016. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit intense search calls and fly in stereotyped flight paths as they forage in the wild. Journal of Experimental Biology 219(3): 334-340.
- Humphrey, S. R. 1975. Nursery roosts and community diversity of Nearctic bats. Journal of Mammalogy 56:321-346.
- Jantzen, M., and M. Fenton. 2013. The depth of edge influence among insectivorous bats at forest-field interfaces. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91(5): 287-292.
- Jean, C., P. Hendricks, M. Jones, S. Cooper, and J. Carlson. 2002. Ecological communities on the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: inventory and review of aspen and wetland systems. Report to Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge.
- Jiang, T., H. Wu, J. Feng. 2015. Patterns and causes of geographic variation in bat echolocation pulses. Integrative Zoology 10(3): 241-256.
- Johnson, G.D., M.K. Perlik, W.P. Erickson, and M.D. Strickland. 2004. Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality at a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(4): 1278-1288.
- Jones, J.K., Jr., R.P. Lampe, C.A. Spenrath, and T.H. Kunz. 1973. Notes on the distribution and natural history of bats in southeastern Montana. Occasional papers (Texas Tech University Museum) 15:1-11.
- Kalcounis, M. C., and R. M. Brigham. 1998. Secondary use of aspen cavities by tree-roosting Big Brown Bats. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:603-611.
- Kazial, K.A. and W.M. Masters. 2004. Female big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, recognize sex from a caller's echolocation signals. Animal Behaviour 67(5): 855.
- Keeler, J.O. and E.H. Studier. 1992. Nutrition in pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) feeding on june beetles. Journal of Mammalogy 73(2): 426-430.
- Keeley, B. W., and M. D. Tuttle. 1999. “Bats in American Bridges.” Resource Publication No. 4. Bat Conservation International. Austin, TX. 41 p.
- Keinath, D. 2004. Bat and Terrestrial Mammal Inventories in the Greater Yellowstone Network: A progress report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 17 pp.
- Keinath, D. 2005. Supplementary Mammal Inventory of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Final Report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 21 pp.
- Keinath, D.A. 2001. Bat Habitat Delineation and Survey Suggestions for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Unpublished report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for the North American Bat Conservation Partnership.
- Keinath, D.A. 2005. A bat Conservation Evaluation for White Grass Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Unpublished report for Grand Teton National Park by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Data Base, Laramie, WY.
- Keinath, D.A. 2007. Yellowstone's World of Bats: Taking Inventory of Yellowstone's Night Life. Yellowstone Science 15: 3-13.
- Keinath, Douglas A. 2005. Bat inventory of the Greater Yellowstone Network: Final Report. National Park Service Greater Yellowstone Network Inventory and Monitoring Program (hardcopy).
- Kilgour, R.J., P. Faure, and R.M. Brigham. 2013. Evidence of social preferences in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 91(10): 756-760.
- Kilgour, R.J., R.M. Brigham, and L. Ebensperger. 2013. The Relationships between Behavioural Categories and Social Influences in the Gregarious Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Ethology 119(3): 189-198.
- Kingston, T., G. Jones, Z. Akbar, and T.H. Kunz. 2003. Alternation of echolocation calls in 5 species of aerial-feeding insectivorous bats from Malaysia. Journal of Mammalogy 84(1): 205-215.
- Kitzes, J. and A. Merenlender. 2014. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species. Plos ONE 9(5): 1-5.
- Kubista, C.E. and A. Bruckner. 2015. Importance of urban trees and buildings as daytime roosts for bats. Biologia 70(11): 1545-1552.
- Kudray, G.M., P. Hendricks, E. Crowe, and S.V. Cooper. 2004. Riparian forests of the Wild and Scenic Missouri River: ecology and management. Prepared for Lewistown Field Office, Bureau of Land Management, Lewistown, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 29 pp. plus appendices.
- Kuenzi, A. J., G. T. Downard, and M. L. Morrison. 1999. Bat distribution and hibernacula use in west central Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 59:213-220.
- Kunz, T. H. (ed). 1988. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Smithsonian Inst., Washington D.C., 533 pp.
- Kunz, T.H. and M.B. Fenton. 2003. Bat Ecology. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. p. 1-745.
- Kunz, T.H. and P.A. Racey. 1998. Bat biology and conservation. International Bat Research Conference 1995. Boston University. Smithsonian Institution Press.
- Kurta, A. 1982. Flight Patterns of Eptesicus fuscus and Myotis lucifugus Over a Stream. Journal of Mammalogy 63(2): 335-337.
- Kurta, A. and J.O. Matson. 1980. Disproportionate sex ratio in the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). American Midland Naturalist 104(2): 367-369.
- Kurta, A. and R. H. Baker. 1990. Eptesicus fuscus. American Society of Mammalogists, Lawrence, KS. Mammalian Species No. 356:1-10.
- Kurta, A. and S.M. Smith. 2014. Hibernating Bats and Abandoned Mines in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Northeastern Naturalist 21(4): 587-605.
- Lacki, M.J., J.S. Johnson, L.E. Dodd, and M.D. Baker. 2007. Prey consumption of insectivorous bats in coniferous forests of north-central Idaho. Northwest Science 81(3): 199-205.
- LaMarr, S. and A.J. Kuenzi. 2011. Bat species presence in southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 17:1-4. Pp 14-19.
- Lampe, R.P., J.K. Jones Jr., R.S. Hoffmann, and E.C. Birney. 1974. The mammals of Carter County, southeastern Montana. Occa. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kan. 25:1-39.
- Lausen, C. 2003. Thermoregulation and Roost Selection by Reproductive Female Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) Roosting in Rock Crevices. Journal of Zoology 260(3): 235-244.
- Lausen, C. 2005. First record of hosts for tick Carios kelleyi (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) in Canada and Montana. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(3): 497-501.
- Lausen, C. L., and R. M. R. Barclay. 2002. Roosting behaviour and roost selection of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roosting in rock crevices in southeastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:1069-1076.
- Lausen, C.L. and R.R. Barclay. 2006. Benefits of living in a building: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in rocks versus buildings. Journal of Mammalogy 87(2): 362-370.
- Lausen, C.L. R.R. Barclay. 2006. Winter bat activity in the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84(8): 1079-1086.
- Lemke, T. 1991. Big Sky UFOs. Montana Outdoors 22(6):2-7.
- Lenard, S. and P. Hendricks. 2012. Bat Surveys at Army Corps of Engineers Libby Dam, Libby, Montana 2011. A report to the US Army Corps of Engineers, Libby Dam. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 21 pp.
- Lenard, S., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and C. Currier. 2007. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region 1 Lands in Montana: 2006. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 23 pp. plus appendices.
- Lenard, S., P. Hendricks, and B.A. Maxell. 2009. Bat surveys on USFS Northern Region lands in Montana: 2007. A report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Helena, MT. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 21 pp plus appendices.
- Lewis, S. E. 1995. “Roost Fidelity of Bats: a Review.” Journal of Mammalogy 76:481-496.
- Lilley, T.M., J.S. Johnson, L. Ruokolainen, E.J. Rogers, C.A. Wilson, S.M. Schell, K.A. Field, and D.M. Reeder. 2016. White-nose syndrome survivors do not exhibit frequent arousals associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection. Frontiers in Zoology 13(1): 1.
- Loeb, S.C. and J.M. O'Keefe. 2006. Habitat use by forest bats in South Carolina in relation to local, stand, and landscape characteristics. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(5): 1210-1218.
- Long, B.L., A. Kurta, and D.L. Clemans. 2013. Analysis of DNA from Feces to Identify Prey of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) Caught in Apple Orchards. American Midland Naturalist 170(2): 287-297.
- Madson, M. and G. Hanson. 1992. Bat hibernaculum search in the Pryor Mountains, southcentral Montana (Draft). Montana Natural Heritage Program. 35 pp.
- Madson, M., G. Hanson, S. Martinez, and D. Genter. 1993. Wintering bats in Montana: results of surveys in the Pryor Mountains with annotation on area caves and mines. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 36 pp.
- Madson. M. 1990. Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, with maps. 6 pp.
- Martin, P.R., K. Dubois and H.B. Youmans. 1981. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas, Powder River resources area final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. No. YA-553-CTO- 24. 288 p.
- Martinez, S. 1996. Evaluation of selected bat habitat sites in south central and north western Montana, 1995. Unpublished report to the Montana Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy.
- Martinez, S. 1999. Evaluation of selected bat habitat sites along the Mammoth-Norris grand loop road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1997-1998. [Unpublished report submitted to the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT]. 16pp.
- Mathews, F., N. Roche, T. Aughney, N. Jones, J. Day, J. Baker, and S. Langton. 2015. Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370(1667): 20140124.
- Matthews, W. L., and J. E. Swenson. 1982. The mammals of east-central Montana. Proc. Mont.
Acad. Sci. 41:1-13.
- Maxell, B.A. 2016. Flammulated Owl surveys on the Big Timber, Bozeman, Gardiner and Livingston Ranger Districts of the Custer Gallatin National Forest: 2013. Report to Custer Gallatin National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 27pp + appendices.
- Maxell, B.A. 2016. Northern Goshawk surveys on the Beartooth, Ashland, and Sioux Districts of the Custer-Gallatin National Forest: 2012-2014. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 114pp.
- Maxim Technologies, Inc., 2002, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 2002 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 2001 - November 30, 2002. Febr. 24, 2002.
- McGee, M., D.A. Keinath and G.P. Beauvais. 2002. Survey for rare vertebrates in the Pinedale Field Office of the USDI Bureau of Land Management (Wyoming). Unpublished report prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management. Wyoming State Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Metheny, J.D., M.C. Kalcounis-Rueppell, C.K. Willis, K.A. Kolar, and R.M. Brigham. 2008. Genetic relationships between roost-mates in a fission-fusion society of tree-roosting big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Behavioral Ecology And Sociobiology 62(7): 1043-1051.
- Monroy, J., M. Carter, K. Miller, E. Covey. 2011. Development of echolocation and communication vocalizations in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural & Behavioral Physiology, 197(5): 459-467.
- Montana Bat Working Group. 2020. Recommendations to reduce bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in Montana. Presented to the Montana Fish and Wildlife Commission.
- Moosman Jr., P.R., H.H. Thomas, and J.P. Veilleux. 2012. Diet of the widespread insectivorous bats Eptesicus fuscus and Myotis lucifugus relative to climate and richness of bat communities. Journal of Mammalogy 93(2): 491-496.
- Mumford, R. E. And J. B. Cope. 1964. Distribution and Status of the Chrioptera of Indiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 72(2):473-489.
- Mumford, R.E. 1969. Long-tailed Weasel Preys on Big Brown Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 50(2): 360-360.
- Nagorsen, D.W. 1980. Records of hibernating Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) in northwestern Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 94(1):83-85.
- Nagorsen, D.W. and R.M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Volume I. The Mammals of British Columbia. UBC Press, Vancouver. 164 pp.
- Nagorsen, D.W., A.A. Bryant, D. Kerridge, G. Roberts, A. Roberts, and M.J. Sarell. 1993. Winter bat records for British Columbia. Northwestern Naturalist. 74(3): 61-66.
- Natural Resources Conservation Service and Bat Conservation International. 1998. Bats and mines: Evaluating abandoned mines for bats: recommendations for survey and closure. 6 p.
- Neubaum, D.J., K.R. Wilson, and T.J. O'Shea. 2007. Urban maternity-roost selection by big brown bats in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(3): 728-736.
- Neubaum, D.J., M.A. Neubaum, L.E. Ellison, and W.L. Gannon. 2005. Survival and condition of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) after radiotagging. Journal of Mammalogy 86(1): 95-98.
- Neubaum, D.J., T.J. O'Shea, and K.R. Wilson. 2006. Autumn migration and selection of rock crevices as hibernacula by big brown bats in Colorado. Journal of Mammalogy 87(3): 470-479.
- Neuweiler, G. 1989. Foraging ecology and audition in echolocating bats. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4(6): 160-166.
- Neuweiler, G. 1990. Auditory adaptations for prey capture in echolocating bats. Physiological Reviews 70(3): 615-641.
- Nowak, R.M. and E.P. Walker. 1994. Walker's bats of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland.
- O’Shea, T.J., L.E. Ellison, D.J. Neubaum, M.A. Neubaum, C.A. Reynolds, and R.A. Bowen. 2010. Recruitment in a Colorado population of big brown bats: breeding probabilities, litter size, and first-year survival. Journal of Mammalogy 91(2): 418-428.
- Ober, H.K. and J.P. Hayes. 2008. Prey Selection by Bats in Forests of Western Oregon. Journal of Mammalogy 89(5): 1191-1200.
- Oechsli, L.M. 2000. Ex-urban development in the Rocky Mountain West: consequences for native vegetation, wildlife diversity, and land-use planning in Big Sky, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 73 p.
- Olson, C.R., D.P. Hobson, and M.J. Pybus. 2011. Changes in Population Size of Bats at a Hibernaculum in Alberta, Canada, in Relation to Cave Disturbance and Access Restrictions. Northwestern Naturalist 92(3): 224-230.
- O'Shea, T.J., L.E. Ellison, T.R. Stanley. 2011. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Journal of Mammalogy 92(2): 433-443.
- Pearce, R.D., T.J. O'Shea, and B.A. Wunder. 2008. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats. Acta Chiropterologica 10(1): 153-159.
- Peck, J. and A. Kuenzi. 2003. Relationship of Orientation on Internal Temperature of Artificial Bat Roosts, Southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 9(1): 19-25.
- Perkins, J. M., J. M. Barss, and J. Peterson. 1990. Winter records of bats in Oregon and Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 71:59-62.
- Perry, R.W. and R.E. Thill. 2008. Roost selection by Big Brown Bats in Forests of Arkansas: Importance of Pine Snags and Open Forest Habitats to Males. Southeastern Naturalist 7(4): 607-618.
- Perry, R.W., R.E. Thill, and D.M. Leslie Jr. 2008. Scale-Dependent Effects of Landscape Structure and Composition on Diurnal Roost Selection by Forest Bats. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(4): 913-925.
- Pollock, T., C.R. Moreno, L. Sánchez, A. Ceballos-Vasquez, P.A. Faure, and E.C. Mora. 2016. Wound healing in the flight membranes of wild big brown bats. Journal of Wildlife Management 80(1): 19-26.
- Pybus, M.J. 1986. Rabies in insectivorous bats of western Canada, 1979 to 1983. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 22(3): 307-313.
- Quay, W.B. 1948. Notes on Some Bats from Nebraska and Wyoming. Journal of Mammalogy 29(2): 181-182.
- Rabe, M. J., T. E. Morrell, H. Green, J. C. demos, Jr., and C. R. Miller. 1998. Characteristics of ponderosa pine snag roosts used by reproductive bats in northeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:612-621.
- Rancourt, S.J., M.I. Rule, and M.A. O’Connell. 2007. Maternity roost site selection of big brown bats in ponderosa pine forests of the Channeled Scablands of northeastern Washington State, USA. Forest Ecology & Management 248(3): 183-192.
- Reid, F. 2006. Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 608 pp.
- Rintoul, J. and R.M. Brigham. 2014. The influence of reproductive condition and concurrent environmental factors on torpor and foraging patterns in female big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus). Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 184(6): 777-787
- Roemer, D.M. 1994. Results of field surveys for bats on the Kootenai National Forest and the Lolo National Forest of western Montana, 1993. Unpublished report for the Kootenai National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 19 pp.
- Rossillon, M. 1995. The McDonald Mine, west of Ravalli: a cultural resource inventory and evaluation. Renewable Technologies, Inc.. Butte. MT. Unpublished report. 24 pp.
- Sändig, S., H. Schnitzler, and A. Denzinger. 2014. Echolocation behaviour of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) in an obstacle avoidance task of increasing difficulty. Journal of Experimental Biology 217(16): 2876-2884.
- Sasse, D. 1989. Lick Creek Cave - Survey for Bats. White Sulfur Springs, MT: USDA Forest Service, Lewis and Clark National Forest. Report to the district ranger of Kings Hill Ranger District.
- Sasse, D. C. 1991 . Survey of Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, U.S. Forest Service Belt Creek Information Station, Neihart, MT. 1 3 pp.
- Sawyer, N.T. and S.C. Burnett. 2006. Methods to discriminate echolocation calls between male and female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Georgia Journal of Science 64(4): 163-176.
- Scheeter, Jessica and David Zell. 1996. Bat survey of Lower Birch Creek Drainage, Beaverhead National Forest.
- Schmidt, U. and G. Joermann. 1986. The Influence of Acoustical Interferences on Echolocation in Bats. Mammalia 50(3): 379-390.
- Schowalter, D.B. and J.R. Gunson. 1979. Reproductive biology of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) in Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93(1):48-54.
- Schwab, N.A. 2004. Bat Conservation Strategy and plan for the State of Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 10(1-4): 80.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2003. Mine Assessments for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2003. Report to USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 10pp.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2004. Mine Assessment for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2004. USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 16 pp.
- Secord, A.L., K.A. Patnode, C. Carter, E. Redman, D.J. Gefell, A.R. Major, and D.W. Sparks. 2015. Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Bats from the Northeastern United States. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 69(4): 411-421.
- Sherwin, R.E., J.S. Altenbach, and D.L. Waldien. 2009. Managing abandoned mines for bats. Bat Conservation International.
- Sherwin, R.E., S. Haymond, D. Stricklan,and R. Olsen. 2002. Freeze-branding to permanently mark bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1): 97-100.
- Silvis, A., S.D. Gehrt, R.A. Williams. 2016. Effects of shelterwood harvest and prescribed fire in upland Appalachian hardwood forests on bat activity. Forest Ecology and Management 360:205-212.
- Stamper, S., M. Bates, D. Benedicto, and J. Simmons. 2009. Role of broadcast harmonics in echo delay perception by big brown bats. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 195(1): 79-89.
- Starbuck, C.A., S.K. Amelon, and F.R. Thompson. 2015. Relationships between bat occupancy and habitat and landscape structure along a savanna, woodland, forest gradient in the Missouri Ozarks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39(1): 20-30.
- Storm, J.J. and J.O. Whitaker Jr. 2008. Prey Selection of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) during an Emergence of 17-year Cicadas (Magicicada spp.). American Midland Naturalist 160(2): 350-357.
- Sümer, S., A. Denzinger, and H. Schnitzler. 2009. Spatial unmasking in the echolocating Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 195(5): 463-472.
- Swenson, J. E. and J. C. Bent. 1977. The bats of Yellowstone County, southcentral Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 37:82-84.
- Swenson, J.E. and G.F. Shanks, Jr. 1979. Noteworthy records of bats from northeastern Montana. Journal of Mammalogy. 60(3): 650-652
- Swier, V.J. 2003. Food habits of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. South Dakota Academy of Science. Proceedings 82: 73-77.
- Taylor, D.A.R. and M.D. Tuttle. 2007. Water for wildlife: a handbook for ranchers and range managers. Bat Conservation International. 20 p.
- Thomas, D.W. 1995. Hibernating Bats Are Sensitive to Nontactile Human Disturbance. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 940-946.
- Thompson, L.S. 1982. Distribution of Montana amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Bozeman: Montana Audubon Council. 24 pp.
- Tigner, J. and E.D. Stukel. 2003. Bats of the Black Hills: a description of status and conservation needs. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Wildlife Division Report 2003-05. 94 p.
- Tigner, Joel. 2007. Bat hibernacula surveys (in) gated mines, Pryor Mountains, Carbon County, Montana - Report to BLM. Batworks 2416 Cameron Drive, Rapid City, SD 57702.
- Tigner, Joel. 2005. Active Season Bat Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, MT. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 16pp.
- Tigner, Joel. 2006. Bat Hibernacula Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, Montana. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 9pp.
- Turner, R. W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas Misc. Pub. No. 60. 178 pp.
- Tuttle, M.D. and D.A.R. Taylor. 1998. Bats and mines. Bat Conservation International, Inc. Resource Publication No. 3. 52 p.
- Twente, J. W., Jr. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats. Ecology 36(4): 706-732.
- U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service., 1985, Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana: Final Environmental Impact Statement.
- Valdez, E.W. and T.J. O'Shea. 2014. Seasonal shifts in the diet of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), Fort Collins, Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 59(4): 509-514.
- Van Gelder, R.G. 1956. Echo-location failure in migratory bats. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 59(2): 220-222.
- Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. and P. Geraghty. 1985. Handbook of Canadian Mammals: Volume 2: Bats. Canadian Museum of Nature. 212 p.
- Vonhof, M. J., and R.M.R. Barclay. 1996. Roost-site selection and roosting ecology of forest-dwelling bats in southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:1797-1805.
- Vonhof, M.J. and J.C. Gwilliam. 2007. Intra- and interspecific patterns of day roost selection by three species of forest-dwelling bats in Southern British Columbia. Forest Ecology & Management 252(1-3): 165-175.
- Vonhof, M.J., C. Strobeck, M.B. Fenton. 2008. Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus): is Female Dispersal Important? Journal of Mammalogy 89(6): 1411-1420.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2000, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1999 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1998 - November 30, 1999. February 2000.
- Warnecke, M., C. Chiu, J. Engelberg, and C.F. Moss. 2015. Active Listening in a Bat Cocktail Party: Adaptive Echolocation and Flight Behaviors of Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Foraging in a Cluttered Acoustic Environment. Brain Behaviour and Evolution 86(1): 6-16.
- Webber, Q.M.R., R.M. Brigham, A.D. Park, E.H. Gillam, T.J. O'Shea, and C.K.R. Willis. 2016. Social network characteristics and predicted pathogen dynamics in summer colonies of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 70(5): 701-712.
- Weller, T.J. and D.C. Lee. 2007. Mist Net Effort Required to Inventory a Forest Bat Species Assemblage. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 251-257.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT. Unpub., 1983, Western Energy Company's Application for Amendment to Surface Mining Permit NO. 8003, Area B: sections 7, 8, 17,18 T1N R41E, sections 12, 13 T1N R40E, Mining Expansion. March 1983.
- Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. (WESTECH)., 1996, Wildlife Monitoring Absaloka Mine Area Annual Report, 1995. Montana SMP 85005. OSMP Montana 0007D. Febr. 23, 1996.
- Whitaker Jr., J.O. and T.J. O'Shea. 2004. Prey selection in a temperate zone insectivorous bat community. Journal of Mammalogy 85(3): 460-469.
- Whitaker, J., D. Sparks, V. Brack. 2006. Use of Artificial Roost Structures by Bats at the Indianapolis International Airport. Environmental Management 38(1): 28-36.
- Whitaker, J.O. and S.L. Gummer. 1992. Hibernation of the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus, in Buildings. Journal of Mammalogy. 73(2): 312-316.
- Whitaker, J.O., H.K. Dannelly, and D.A. Prentice. 2004. Chitinase in Insectivorous Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 85(1): 15-18.
- Williams, L. M., and M. C. Brittingham. 1997. Selection of maternity roosts by Big Brown Bats. Joumal of Wildlife Management 61 :359-368.
- Willis, C.K. 2015. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host–Pathogen Systems. Integrative Comparative Biology 55(4): 631-641
- Willis, C.K., K.A. Kolar, A.L. Karst, M.C. Kalcounis-Rueppell, and R.M. Brigham. 2003. Medium- and long-term reuse of trembling aspen cavities as roosts by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Acta Chiropterologica 5(1): 85-90.
- Willis, C.R. and R.M. Brigham. 2007. Social thermoregulation exerts more influence than microclimate on forest roost preferences by a cavity-dwelling bat. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62(1): 97-108.
- Willis, C.R., C.M. Voss, and R.M. Brigham. 2006. Roost selection by forest-living female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Journal of Mammalogy 87(2): 345-350.
- Willis, C.R., L.E. Lane, E.T. Liknes, D.L. Swanson, and R.M. Brigham. 2005. Thermal energetics of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 83(6): 871-879.
- Wilson, D. 2014. Animal Communication: Keep Your Wings Off My Food!. Current Biology 24(8): R319-R321.
- Wilson, D. E., F. R. Cole, J. D. Nichols, R. Rudran, and M. S. Foster, (eds.). 1996. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for mammals. Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. 409 pp.
- Wolfe, M.L. and A. Kozlowski. 2006. Bat inventories at Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site and Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, FInal Report. Rocky Mountains Cooperative Ecosystems Studies Unit. Utah State University. Logan, UT. 26 pp.
- Worthington, D.J. 1991. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana and north eastern Wyoming. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.
- Worthington, D.J. and H.N. Ross. 1990. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana. Unpublished report for the Montana Natural Heritage Program. 20 pp.
- Wright, G., C. Chiu, W. Xian, G. Wilkinson, and C. Moss. 2014. Social Calls Predict Foraging Success in Big Brown Bats. Current Biology 24(8): 885-889.
- Wright, G.S., G.S. Wilkinson, and C.F. Moss. 2011. Social learning of a novel foraging task by big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. Animal Behaviour 82(5): 1075-1083.
- Wunder, L. and A.B. Carey. 1996. Use of the forest canopy by bats. Northwest Science 70:79-85.
- Zukal, J., J. Pikula, and H. Bandouchova. 2015. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect. Mammalian Biology 80(3): 220-227.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Mammals"