Western Small-footed Myotis - Myotis ciliolabrum
Smaller bat with a wingspan of 8-10 inches (21-25 centimeters) and weighing 0.1-0.2 ounces (4-6 grams). Dorsal fur is light brown to yellowish brown with the underside slightly lighter. Ears and facial mask are black to dark brown. Distinguishing features include small hind feed that are less than half the length of the tibia, a bare snout length of 1.5 times the distance between the nostrils, a thumb length greater than 4.2 millimeters, and a tail that extends beyond the border of the tail membrane by 4 millimeters (Adams 2003, Ormsbee 2005).
Western Hemisphere Range
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Found in mesic and arid conifer forest, associated with rock outcrops, talus, clay banks; also riparian woodland. Summer day roosts include rock outcrops, clay banks, loose bark, buildings, bridges, caves, and mines. Hibernacula include caves and mines.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: mtnhp.org/requests
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Human Land Use
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
A variety of small insects are taken as prey, including flies, mosquitoes, caddisflies, beetles, and moths.
Flight slow, erratic, and low over ground. Sexes mostly segregated; males roost singly, females may occur singly or in small maternity colonies. Often hibernate singly.
Females have one young in late June or July.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West: natural history, ecology and conservation. University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO. 289 pp.
- Ormsbee, P. 2005. Key to Idaho, Montana, & South Dakota Bats. Unpublished document: Willamette National Forest, Eugene, Oregon.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Abernethy, I.M., M.D. Andersen, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration year 2 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Adams, R.A., S.C. Pedersen, K.M. Thibault, J. Jadin, and B. Petru. 2003. Calcium as a Limiting Resource to Insectivorous Bats: Can Water Holes Provide a Supplemental Mineral Source. Journal of Zoology 260(2): 189-194.
- Agnarsson, I., C.M. Zambrana-Torrelio, N.P. Flores-Saldana, L.J. May-Collado. 2011. A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia). PLoS Currents Tree of Life. Edition1. RRN1212.
- Albers, Mark., 1995, Draft Biological Assessment: Tongue River Basin Project. May 1995. In Tongue River Basin Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix B. June 1995.
- Amichai, E., G. Blumrosen, and Y. Yovel. 2015. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1821): 20152064.
- Arnett, E.B. 2007. Presence, relative abundance, and resource selection of bats in managed forest landscapes in western Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
- Bachen, D.A., A.L. McEwan, B.O. Burkholder, S.L. Hilty, S.A. Blum, and B.A. Maxell.. 2018. Bats of Montana: Identification and Natural History. Report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 111pp.
- Bachen, D.A., and B.A. Maxell. 2014. Distribution and status of bird, small mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, South Dakota Field Office-BLM. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, South Dakota Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana 25 pp. plus appendices.
- Baker, R.H. and C.J. Phillips. 1965. Mammals from El Nevado de Colima, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 46(4): 691-693.
- Barclay, R.M.R. 1991. Population Structure of Temperate Zone Insectivorous Bats in Relation to Foraging Behavior and Energy Demand. Journal of Animal Ecology 60(1): 165.
- Bat Conservation International. G4 Harp Trap: Assembly and Advice. 8 p.
- Baxter, D.M., J.M. Psyllakis, M.P. Gillingham, and E.L. O'Brien. 2006. Behavioural response of bats to perceived predation risk while foraging. Ethology 112(10): 977-983.
- Bell, J.F., G.J. Moore, G.H. Raymond, and C.E. Tibbs. 1962. Characteristics of Rabies in Bats in Montana. American Journal of Public Health 52(8): 1293-1301.
- Bell, J.F., W.J. Hadlow and W.L. Jellison. 1957. A survey of chiropteran rabies in western Montana. Public Health Reports. 72(1): 16-18.
- Bender, M.J. and G.D. Hartman. 2015. Bat Activity Increases with Barometric Pressure and Temperature During Autumn in Central Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 14(2): 231-242.
- Berthinussen, A. and J. Altringham. 2012. The effect of a major road on bat activity and diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 82-89.
- Bogan, M.A., and K. Geluso. 1999. Bat roosts and historic structures on National Park Service lands in the Rocky Mountain region. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Geological Survey, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, Dept. of Biology, the University of New Mexico. Unpublished report. 25 pp
- British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. 1998. Inventory Methods for Bats; Standards for Components of British Columbia's Biodiversity No. 20. Prepared for the Terrestrial Ecosystems Task Force Resources Inventory Committee. Version 2.0. 58 p.
- Butts, T. 1997. Bat surveys Indian Creek Canyon, Elkhorn Mountains, Montana. Continental Divide Wildlife Consulting. Helena, MT 32 pg.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A preliminary survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest, Montana: 1991. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 35 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest Montana: 1992. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 39 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Townsend Ranger District, Helena National Forest, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 16 pp.
- Callahan, E.V. and R.D. Drobney. 1997. Selection of summer roosting sites by Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in Missouri. Journal of Mammalogy 78(3): 818.
- Carlson, J.C. and P. Hendricks. 2001. A Proposal for: Bat Use of Highway Structures: A Pilot Study. Submitted to the Montana Department of Transportation.
- Carlson, J.C. and S.V. Cooper. 2003. Plant and Animal Resources and Ecological Condition of the Forks Ranch Unit of the Padlock Ranch, Big Horn County, Montana and Sheridan County, Wyoming. Unpublished report to The Nature Conservancy Montana Field Office.
- Chester, J.M., N.P. Campbell, K. Karsmizki, and D. Wirtz. 1979. Resource inventory and evaluation. Azure Cave, Montana. BLM unpublished report. 55 pp.
- Choate, J. R. and J. M. Anderson. 1997. Bats of Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 29:39-47.
- Christy, R. E. and S. W. West. 1993. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests. U.S.D.A., Forest Serv., Pac. Northw. res. Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-308.
- Chung-MacCoubrey, A.L. 2005. Use of pinyon–juniper woodlands by bats in New Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 204: 209–220.
- Clement, M.J., J.M. O'Keefe, and B. Walters. 2015. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. Ecosphere 6(10): 184.
- Clement, M.J., T.J. Rodhouse, P.C. Ormsbee, J.M. Szewczak, and J.D. Nichols. 2014. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(5): 1460-1467.
- Cockrum, E.L., B. Musgrove, and Y. Peteryszyn. 1996. Bats of Mohave County, Arizona: populations and movements. Occasional Papers of The Museum, Texas Tech University 157: 1-71.
- Coleman, J.L. and R.R. Barclay. 2013. Prey availability and foraging activity of grassland bats in relation to urbanization. Journal of Mammalogy 94(5): 1111-1122.
- Constantine, D.G. 1998. An Overlooked External Character to Differentiate Myotis californicus and Myotis ciliolabrum. Journal of Mammalogy 79(2): 624.
- Corbett, J. 2011. Evaluation and management of select natural cave and abandoned mine features of the Lewis and Clark and Helena National Forests, Montana. Bat Conservation International. 18pp plus appendices.
- Cryan, P. M., M. A. Bogan, and J. S. Altenbach. 2000. Effect of elevation on distribution of female bats in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 81:719-725.
- Cvikel, N., E. Levin, E. Hurme, I. Borissov, A. Boonman, E. Amichai, and Y. Yovel. 2015. On-board recordings reveal no jamming avoidance in wild bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1798).
- Davis, R. 1966. Homing performance and homing ability in bats. Ecological Monographs 36(3): 201-237.
- Davis, W.B. 1937. Some mammals from western Montana and eastern Idaho. The Murrelet 18(2): 22-27.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part I: Control. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2. 6 p.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part II: Identification and Biology. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2A. 10 p.
- Dood, A.R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 pp.
- Dubois, K. 1999. Region 4 bat surveys: 1998 progress report. Unpublished report, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Region 4 Headquarters, Great Falls, Montana. 20 pp.
- DuBois, K. 2000. Species occurrence and Distribution of Bats in North Central Montana: Range Map Changes Resulting from Two Years of Field Surveys. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 6(4): 376.
- Ducummon, S.L. 1997. The North American bats and mines project: a cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation. Paper presented at the 1997 National Meeting of the American Society for Mining and Reclamation, Austin, Texas.
- Easterla, D. A. 1973. Ecology of the 18 species of Chiroptera at Big Bend National Park, Texas. Part I and II. Northwest Missouri State University Studies 34:1-165.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1979, including a special raptor research study. Proj. 216-85-A. March 1, 1980.
- Feigley, H.P. 1998. An Examination of the Issues and Feasibility of Conducting Surveys of Abandoned Mines for Bats. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Feigley, H.P., M. Brown, S. Martinez, and K. Schletz. 1997.Assessment of mines for importance to bat species of concern, southwestern Montana. Report to: U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center; 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400. 9pp.
- Fenton, M.B. 1990. The Foraging Behavior and Ecology of Animal-Eating Bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(3): 411-422.
- Fenton, M.B. 2003. Science and the conservation of bats: where to next? Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(1) 6-15.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. American Society of Mammalogists, Special Publication Number 12. Lawrence, KS. 278 pp.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Gannon, W.L., R.E. Sherwin, T.N. deCarvalho, M.J. O'Farrell. 2001. Pinnae and echolocation call differences between Myotis californicus and M. ciliolabrum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Acta Chiropterologica 3(1): 77-91.
- Geluso, K. 2006. Bats in a human-made forest of central Nebraska. The Prairie Naturalist 38(1): 13-23.
- Geluso, K. 2007. Winter activity of bats over water and along flyways in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 52(4): 482-492.
- Genoways, H. H., and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1972. Mammals from southwestern North Dakota. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University 6:1-36.
- Genter, D. L. 1986. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves. Great Basin Naturalist 46(2):241-244.
- Genter, D.L. and K.A. Jurist. 1995. Bats of Montana. Guide for Assessing Mines for Bats Workshop, June 14-15, 1995, Helena, MT, hosted by Montana Department of State Lands and the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 11 pp.
- Griscom, H.R. and D.A. Keinath. 2011. Inventory and status of bats at Devils Tower National Monument. Report prepared for the USDI National Park Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Griscom, H.R., M.D. Anderson, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration, year 1 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Hanauska-Brown, L., B.A. Maxell, A. Petersen, and S. Story. 2014. Diversity Monitoring in Montana 2008 – 2010 Final Report. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. Helena, MT. 78 pp.
- Harmata, A., D. Flath, R. Hazlewood, and S. Milodragovich. 2002. Initial Site Evaluation for Wind Resource Development in Montana: An Index Relative to Potential Impacts on Vertebrate Wildlife. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 8(4): 253-254.
- Harvey, M.J., J.S. Altenbach, and T.L. Best. 2011. Bats of the United States and Canada. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. p. 202
- Hein, C.D., S.B. Castleberry, and K.V. Miller. 2009. Site-occupancy of bats in relation to forested corridors. Forest Ecology and Management 257(4): 1200-1207.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Preliminary bat inventory of caves and abandoned mines on BLM lands, Judith Mountains, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 21 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1997. Mine assessments for bat activity, Garnet Resource Area, BLM: 1997. Unpublished report to USDI, Bureau of Land Management. 17pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1998. Bats surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1997-1998. November 1998.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Effect of gate installation on continued use by bats of four abandoned mine workings in western Montana. Unpublished report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Mine Assessment for Bat Activity, Helena National Forest: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in the Philipsburg, Montana area: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.13pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Bat survey along the Norris-Madison Junction Road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 15pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2003. Assessment of Selected Mines for Use by Bats in the Garnet and Avon Areas: 2002. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Hendricks, P. and B.A. Maxell. 2005. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region Lands in Montana: 2005. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P. and D. Kampwerth. 2001. Roost environments for bats using abandoned mines in southwestern Montana : a preliminary assessment. Report to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 19 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and D.L. Genter. 1997. Bat surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 25 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and J.C. Carlson. 2001. Bat use of abandoned mines in the Pryor Mountains. Report to the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Mine Waste Cleanup Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 8 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and L.M. Hendricks. 2010. Water Aquistion During Daylight by Free-Ranging Myotis Bats. Northwestern Naturalist 91(3): 336-338.
- Hendricks, P., B.A. Maxell, S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2006. Riparian Bat Surveys in Eastern Montana. A report to the USDI Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P., C. Currier, and J. Carlson. 2004. Bats of the BLM Billings Field Office in south-central Montana, with emphasis on the Pryor Mountains. Report to Bureau of Land Management Billings Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 19 pp. + appendices.
- Hendricks, P., D. Kampwerth and M. Brown. 1999. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in southwestern Montana: 1997-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 29 pp.
- Hendricks, P., D. L. Genter, and S. Martinez. 2000. Bats of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains, Montana. Canadian Field-Naturalist 114 :89-97.
- Hendricks, P., K. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Sioux District, Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 41 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter and J.D. Reichel. 1996. Bats of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 99 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana: 1994. MTNHP report.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2005. Bat Use of Highway Bridges in South-Central Montana. FHWA/MT-05-007/8159. Final Report prepared for the Montana Department of Transportation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, prepared by the Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier, and B.A. Maxell. 2007. Filling the distribution gaps for small mammals in Montana. Helena, MT.: Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, D.M. Stagliano, and B.A. Maxell. 2013. Baseline nongame wildlife surveys on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Report to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 83 p.
- Hendricks, Paul. 2012. Winter Records of Bats in Montana. Northwestern Naturalist. 93:154-162.
- Herd, R.M. 1987. Electrophoretic divergence of Myotis leibii and Myotis ciliolabrum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 65:1857-1860.
- Hill J.E. and J.D. Smith: 1984. Bats: a natural history. Univ. Texas Press Austin. 243 pp.
- Hinman, K.E. and T.K. Snow, eds. 2003. Arizona Bat Conservation Strategic Plan. Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program Technical Report 213. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
- Hoffmann, R. S., D. L. Pattie and J. F. Bell. 1969. The distribution of some mammals in Montana. II. Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 50(4): 737-741.
- Holloway, G. L. and R. M. R. Barclay. 2001. Myotis ciliolabrum. American Society of Mammalogists, Lawrence, KS. Mammalian Species No. 670:1-5.
- Holroyd, S.L., V.J. Craig, and P. Govindarajulu. 2016. Best Management Practices for Bats in British Columbia. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 301pp.
- Humphrey, S. R. 1975. Nursery roosts and community diversity of Nearctic bats. Journal of Mammalogy 56:321-346.
- Jean, C., P. Hendricks, M. Jones, S. Cooper, and J. Carlson. 2002. Ecological communities on the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: inventory and review of aspen and wetland systems. Report to Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge.
- Jiang, T., H. Wu, J. Feng. 2015. Patterns and causes of geographic variation in bat echolocation pulses. Integrative Zoology 10(3): 241-256.
- Jones, J.K., Jr., R.P. Lampe, C.A. Spenrath, and T.H. Kunz. 1973. Notes on the distribution and natural history of bats in southeastern Montana. Occasional papers (Texas Tech University Museum) 15:1-11.
- Keeley, B. W., and M. D. Tuttle. 1999. “Bats in American Bridges.” Resource Publication No. 4. Bat Conservation International. Austin, TX. 41 p.
- Keinath, D. 2004. Bat and Terrestrial Mammal Inventories in the Greater Yellowstone Network: A progress report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 17 pp.
- Keinath, D. 2005. Supplementary Mammal Inventory of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Final Report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 21 pp.
- Keinath, D.A. 2001. Bat Habitat Delineation and Survey Suggestions for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Unpublished report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for the North American Bat Conservation Partnership.
- Keinath, D.A. 2005. A bat Conservation Evaluation for White Grass Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Unpublished report for Grand Teton National Park by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Data Base, Laramie, WY.
- Keinath, D.A. 2007. Yellowstone's World of Bats: Taking Inventory of Yellowstone's Night Life. Yellowstone Science 15: 3-13.
- Keinath, Douglas A. 2005. Bat inventory of the Greater Yellowstone Network: Final Report. National Park Service Greater Yellowstone Network Inventory and Monitoring Program (hardcopy).
- Kingston, T., G. Jones, Z. Akbar, and T.H. Kunz. 2003. Alternation of echolocation calls in 5 species of aerial-feeding insectivorous bats from Malaysia. Journal of Mammalogy 84(1): 205-215.
- Kubista, C.E. and A. Bruckner. 2015. Importance of urban trees and buildings as daytime roosts for bats. Biologia 70(11): 1545-1552.
- Kudray, G.M., P. Hendricks, E. Crowe, and S.V. Cooper. 2004. Riparian forests of the Wild and Scenic Missouri River: ecology and management. Prepared for Lewistown Field Office, Bureau of Land Management, Lewistown, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 29 pp. plus appendices.
- Kuenzi, A. J., G. T. Downard, and M. L. Morrison. 1999. Bat distribution and hibernacula use in west central Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 59:213-220.
- Kunz, T. H. (ed). 1988. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Smithsonian Inst., Washington D.C., 533 pp.
- Kunz, T.H. and M.B. Fenton. 2003. Bat Ecology. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. p. 1-745.
- Kunz, T.H. and P.A. Racey. 1998. Bat biology and conservation. International Bat Research Conference 1995. Boston University. Smithsonian Institution Press.
- LaMarr, S. and A.J. Kuenzi. 2011. Bat species presence in southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 17:1-4. Pp 14-19.
- Lampe, R.P., J.K. Jones Jr., R.S. Hoffmann, and E.C. Birney. 1974. The mammals of Carter County, southeastern Montana. Occa. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kan. 25:1-39.
- Lausen, C. 2005. First record of hosts for tick Carios kelleyi (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) in Canada and Montana. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(3): 497-501.
- Lausen, C. and T. Schowalter. 2008. Status of the western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) in Alberta. Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development and Alberta Conservation Association. Alberta Wildlife Status Report No. 64. 36 p.
- Lausen, C.L. R.R. Barclay. 2006. Winter bat activity in the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84(8): 1079-1086.
- Lemke, T. 1991. Big Sky UFOs. Montana Outdoors 22(6):2-7.
- Lenard, S. and P. Hendricks. 2012. Bat Surveys at Army Corps of Engineers Libby Dam, Libby, Montana 2011. A report to the US Army Corps of Engineers, Libby Dam. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 21 pp.
- Lenard, S., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and C. Currier. 2007. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region 1 Lands in Montana: 2006. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 23 pp. plus appendices.
- Lenard, S., P. Hendricks, and B.A. Maxell. 2009. Bat surveys on USFS Northern Region lands in Montana: 2007. A report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Helena, MT. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 21 pp plus appendices.
- Lewis, S. E. 1995. “Roost Fidelity of Bats: a Review.” Journal of Mammalogy 76:481-496.
- Lilley, T.M., J.S. Johnson, L. Ruokolainen, E.J. Rogers, C.A. Wilson, S.M. Schell, K.A. Field, and D.M. Reeder. 2016. White-nose syndrome survivors do not exhibit frequent arousals associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection. Frontiers in Zoology 13(1): 1.
- Madson, M. and G. Hanson. 1992. Bat hibernaculum search in the Pryor Mountains, southcentral Montana (Draft). Montana Natural Heritage Program. 35 pp.
- Madson. M. 1990. Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, with maps. 6 pp.
- Martinez, S. 1999. Evaluation of selected bat habitat sites along the Mammoth-Norris grand loop road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1997-1998. [Unpublished report submitted to the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT]. 16pp.
- Mathews, F., N. Roche, T. Aughney, N. Jones, J. Day, J. Baker, and S. Langton. 2015. Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370(1667): 20140124.
- Matthews, W. L., and J. E. Swenson. 1982. The mammals of east-central Montana. Proc. Mont.
Acad. Sci. 41:1-13.
- Maxell, B.A. 2016. Northern Goshawk surveys on the Beartooth, Ashland, and Sioux Districts of the Custer-Gallatin National Forest: 2012-2014. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 114pp.
- McGee, M., D.A. Keinath and G.P. Beauvais. 2002. Survey for rare vertebrates in the Pinedale Field Office of the USDI Bureau of Land Management (Wyoming). Unpublished report prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management. Wyoming State Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Montana Bat Working Group. 2020. Recommendations to reduce bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in Montana. Presented to the Montana Fish and Wildlife Commission.
- Mumford, R. E. And J. B. Cope. 1964. Distribution and Status of the Chrioptera of Indiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 72(2):473-489.
- Nagorsen, D.W. and R.M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Volume I. The Mammals of British Columbia. UBC Press, Vancouver. 164 pp.
- Nagorsen, D.W., A.A. Bryant, D. Kerridge, G. Roberts, A. Roberts, and M.J. Sarell. 1993. Winter bat records for British Columbia. Northwestern Naturalist. 74(3): 61-66.
- Natural Resources Conservation Service and Bat Conservation International. 1998. Bats and mines: Evaluating abandoned mines for bats: recommendations for survey and closure. 6 p.
- Neuweiler, G. 1989. Foraging ecology and audition in echolocating bats. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4(6): 160-166.
- Neuweiler, G. 1990. Auditory adaptations for prey capture in echolocating bats. Physiological Reviews 70(3): 615-641.
- Nowak, R.M. and E.P. Walker. 1994. Walker's bats of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland.
- Oechsli, L.M. 2000. Ex-urban development in the Rocky Mountain West: consequences for native vegetation, wildlife diversity, and land-use planning in Big Sky, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 73 p.
- Olson, C.R., D.P. Hobson, and M.J. Pybus. 2011. Changes in Population Size of Bats at a Hibernaculum in Alberta, Canada, in Relation to Cave Disturbance and Access Restrictions. Northwestern Naturalist 92(3): 224-230.
- Peck, J. and A. Kuenzi. 2003. Relationship of Orientation on Internal Temperature of Artificial Bat Roosts, Southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 9(1): 19-25.
- Perkins, J. M., J. M. Barss, and J. Peterson. 1990. Winter records of bats in Oregon and Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 71:59-62.
- Quay, W.B. 1948. Notes on Some Bats from Nebraska and Wyoming. Journal of Mammalogy 29(2): 181-182.
- Rabe, M. J., T. E. Morrell, H. Green, J. C. demos, Jr., and C. R. Miller. 1998. Characteristics of ponderosa pine snag roosts used by reproductive bats in northeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:612-621.
- Reid, F. 2006. Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 608 pp.
- Rodhouse, T.J. and K.J. Hyde. 2014. Roost and Forage Site Fidelity of Western Small-footed Myotis in an Oregon Desert Canyon. Western North American Naturalist 74(2):241-248.
- Rodriguez, R. M., and L. K. Ammerman. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA divergence does not reflect morphological difference between Myotis californicus and Myotis ciliolabrum. Journal of Mammalogy 85:842-851.
- Roemer, D.M. 1994. Results of field surveys for bats on the Kootenai National Forest and the Lolo National Forest of western Montana, 1993. Unpublished report for the Kootenai National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 19 pp.
- Rossillon, M. 1995. The McDonald Mine, west of Ravalli: a cultural resource inventory and evaluation. Renewable Technologies, Inc.. Butte. MT. Unpublished report. 24 pp.
- Sasse, D. 1989. Lick Creek Cave - Survey for Bats. White Sulfur Springs, MT: USDA Forest Service, Lewis and Clark National Forest. Report to the district ranger of Kings Hill Ranger District.
- Sasse, D. C. 1991 . Survey of Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, U.S. Forest Service Belt Creek Information Station, Neihart, MT. 1 3 pp.
- Scheeter, Jessica and David Zell. 1996. Bat survey of Lower Birch Creek Drainage, Beaverhead National Forest.
- Schmidly, D. J. 1991. The bats of Texas. Texas A and M University Press, College Station. 188 pp.
- Schmidt, U. and G. Joermann. 1986. The Influence of Acoustical Interferences on Echolocation in Bats. Mammalia 50(3): 379-390.
- Schwab, N.A. 2004. Bat Conservation Strategy and plan for the State of Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 10(1-4): 80.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2003. Mine Assessments for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2003. Report to USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 10pp.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2004. Mine Assessment for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2004. USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 16 pp.
- Sherwin, R.E., J.S. Altenbach, and D.L. Waldien. 2009. Managing abandoned mines for bats. Bat Conservation International.
- Sherwin, R.E., S. Haymond, D. Stricklan,and R. Olsen. 2002. Freeze-branding to permanently mark bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1): 97-100.
- Swenson, J. E. and J. C. Bent. 1977. The bats of Yellowstone County, southcentral Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 37:82-84.
- Swenson, J.E. 1970. Notes on distribution of Myotis leibii in eastern Montana. Blue Jay 28(4):173-174.
- Swenson, J.E. and G.F. Shanks, Jr. 1979. Noteworthy records of bats from northeastern Montana. Journal of Mammalogy. 60(3): 650-652
- Taylor, D.A.R. and M.D. Tuttle. 2007. Water for wildlife: a handbook for ranchers and range managers. Bat Conservation International. 20 p.
- Thomas, D.W. 1995. Hibernating Bats Are Sensitive to Nontactile Human Disturbance. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 940-946.
- Thompson, L.S. 1982. Distribution of Montana amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Bozeman: Montana Audubon Council. 24 pp.
- Tigner, J. and E.D. Stukel. 2003. Bats of the Black Hills: a description of status and conservation needs. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Wildlife Division Report 2003-05. 94 p.
- Tigner, Joel. 2007. Bat hibernacula surveys (in) gated mines, Pryor Mountains, Carbon County, Montana - Report to BLM. Batworks 2416 Cameron Drive, Rapid City, SD 57702.
- Tigner, Joel. 2005. Active Season Bat Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, MT. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 16pp.
- Tigner, Joel. 2006. Bat Hibernacula Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, Montana. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 9pp.
- Turner, R. W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas Misc. Pub. No. 60. 178 pp.
- Tuttle, M.D. and D.A.R. Taylor. 1998. Bats and mines. Bat Conservation International, Inc. Resource Publication No. 3. 52 p.
- Twente, J. W., Jr. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats. Ecology 36(4): 706-732.
- Van Gelder, R.G. 1956. Echo-location failure in migratory bats. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 59(2): 220-222.
- van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1984. Taxonomic relationships of Nearctic small-footed bats of the Myotis leibii group (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Can. J. Zool. 62:2519-2526.
- Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. and P. Geraghty. 1985. Handbook of Canadian Mammals: Volume 2: Bats. Canadian Museum of Nature. 212 p.
- Vonhof, M. J., and R.M.R. Barclay. 1996. Roost-site selection and roosting ecology of forest-dwelling bats in southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:1797-1805.
- Weller, T.J. and D.C. Lee. 2007. Mist Net Effort Required to Inventory a Forest Bat Species Assemblage. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 251-257.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT. Unpub., 1983, Western Energy Company's Application for Amendment to Surface Mining Permit NO. 8003, Area B: sections 7, 8, 17,18 T1N R41E, sections 12, 13 T1N R40E, Mining Expansion. March 1983.
- Wilkinson, L. 2012. Western small-footed bat conservation management plan 2012-2017. Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development. Species at Risk Conservation Management Plan No. 6. 12 pp.
- Willis, C.K. 2015. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host–Pathogen Systems. Integrative Comparative Biology 55(4): 631-641
- Wilson, D. E., F. R. Cole, J. D. Nichols, R. Rudran, and M. S. Foster, (eds.). 1996. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for mammals. Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. 409 pp.
- Wolfe, M.L. and A. Kozlowski. 2006. Bat inventories at Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site and Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, FInal Report. Rocky Mountains Cooperative Ecosystems Studies Unit. Utah State University. Logan, UT. 26 pp.
- Worthington, D.J. 1991. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana and north eastern Wyoming. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.
- Worthington, D.J. and H.N. Ross. 1990. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana. Unpublished report for the Montana Natural Heritage Program. 20 pp.
- Wunder, L. and A.B. Carey. 1996. Use of the forest canopy by bats. Northwest Science 70:79-85.
- Zukal, J., J. Pikula, and H. Bandouchova. 2015. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect. Mammalian Biology 80(3): 220-227.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Mammals"