White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera) Conservation Status Review
Review Date = 12/21/2011
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 km squared (about 8,000-80,000 square miles)
Comment144,218 square kilometers based on Natural Heritage Program range maps that appear on the Montana Field Guide
Area of Occupancy
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreE - Relatively Stable (±25% change)
CommentSpecies favors mesic conifer forests with larch and spruce seeds as their favored diet items. Mesic conifer forests in the Northern Rockies have remained relatively stable within +/- 25% of pre European levels.
ScoreU/E - Unknown, but believed to be stable with population, range, area occupied, and/or number or condition of occurrences unchanged or remaining within ±10% fluctuation
CommentBBS data for entire region is of low credibility and no significant trend exisits
ScoreF - Widespread, low-severity threat. Threat is of low severity but affects (or would affect) most or a significant portion of the population or area.
CommentLoss of mature or late successional forest may represent a threat to the species through increased fire, timber harvest, and insect outbreak since they tend to favor foraging in mature forests. Species is irruptive in association with cone crops.
SeverityLow - Low but nontrivial reduction of species population or reversible degradation or reduction of habitat in area affected, with recovery expected in 10-50 years.
CommentSpecies favors mature spruce-larch forest which requires a long time to mature, but these forests are currently present in a variety of successional stages across the Northern Rockies.
ScopeModerate - 20-60% of total population or area affected
CommentFire threat, insect outbreak threat, and salvage logging threat are all widespread.
ImmediacyModerate - Threat is likely to be operational within 2-5 years.
ScoreC - Not Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance; or species has high dispersal capability such that extirpated populations soon become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans).
CommentNot Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has a high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance. Species has good dispersal capabilities such that extirpated populations generally become reestablished through natural recolonization.
ScoreB - Narrow. Specialist. Specific habitat(s) or other abiotic and/or biotic factors (see above) are used or required by the Element, but these key requirements are common and within the generalized range of the species within the area of interest.
CommentNarrow specialist. Species has morphologically specialized feeding adaptions and favors late successional mesic conifer forests with larch and spruce seeds which are their preferred diet items.