The Ruff breeds across northern Eurasia, from Scandinavia to easternmost Siberia. Winter range is Western Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Breeding habitat is coastal and forest tundra, marshes, near small lakes, damp to swampy meadows and deltas with shallow water margins. In nonbreeding season Ruff prefer muddy margins of lakes, pools, ponds, rivers, marshes, flooded areas, tidal mudflats and lagoons (Van Gils et al.).
Ruff is accidental in North America. This species was first detected in Montana in 1998.
Direct Evidence of Breeding
Indirect Evidence of Breeding