Ponderosa Pine - Pinus ponderosa
(see State Rank Reason below)
State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Widespread and abundant across low-elevations in most of Montana.
- Details on Status Ranking and Review
Score0 - Large: Generally >100,000 individuals.
Score0 - Widespread species within Montana (occurs in 5% or more of the state or generally occurring in 6 or more sub-basins.) as well as outside of Montana.
Area of Occupancy
Score0 - High: Occurs in >25 Subwatersheds (6th Code HUC’s).
Score0 - Low: Species is a generalist that occurs in a variety of habitats and/or is tolerant of disturbed or degraded habitats (C -Values of 1-4).
ScoreNA - Rank factor not assessed.
Score0 - Low: Impacts, if any, to the species are expected to be minor or insignificant (affecting <10% of populations) in severity, scope and immediacy.
Score0 - Low Vulnerability: Species does not have any unusual or specific life history or biological attributes or limted reproductive potential which makes it susceptible to extirpation from stochastic events or other adverse impacts to its habitat and thus slow to recover.
Raw Conservation Status Score
0 points scored out of a possible 16 (Rarity factors and threats only).
Large trees to 65 m tall with an open, rounded crown and spreading branches. Bark of old trees thick, furrowed, covered with scales that resemble pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Leaves yellow-green, 7–25 cm long, 2–3 per fascicle, clustered on branch ends. Seed cones broadly ovoid, 7–15 cm long. Scales thick with a terminal prickle. Seeds with a conspicuous wing. Our plants are var. scopulorum (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX
Across most of MT; BC to NE south to Mexico (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Drier forests as well as rocky exposures (especially sandstone) associated with grasslands; plains, valleys to montane (Lesica et al. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Burkle L.A., M.P. Simanonok, J.S. Durney, J.A. Myers, and R.T. Belote. 2019. Wildfires influence abundance, diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific trait variation of native bees and flowering plants across burned and unburned landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7(252):1-14.
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- DuBois, K.L. 1979. An inventory of the avifauna in the Long Pines of Southeastern Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 113 p.
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- Endicott, C.L. 1996. Responses of riparian and stream ecosystems to varying timing and intensity of livestock grazing in central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p.
- Enk, E.A. 1999. Population dynamics of bighorn sheep on the Beartooth Wildlife Management Area, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 177 p.
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- Fritzen, D.E. 1995. Ecology and behavior of Mule Deer on the Rosebud Coal Mine, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 143 p.
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- Gaffney, W.S. 1941. The effects of winter elk browsing, South Fork of the Flathead River, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 5(4):427-453.
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- Holeckek, J.L. 1976. Initial effects of different species treatments and fertilizer rates on a mine spoils rehabilitation. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 91 p.
- Howard, J. L. 2003. Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online}. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
- Johnson, T. W. 1982. An analysis of pack and saddle stock grazing areas in the Bob Marshall Wilderness. M.Sc.Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 105 p.
- King, L.A. 1980. Effects of topsoiling and other reclamation practices on nonseeded species establishment on surface mined land at Colstrip, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 129 p.
- Kisch, H.R. 2015. An inventory of carbon stocks under native vegetation and farm fields in south-central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 67 p.
- Kitchen, K.A. 2010. The influence of Douglas-fir and Rocky Mountain juniper on Wyoming and mountain big sagebrush cover in southwest Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 87 p.
- Klebenow, D.A. 1965. A montane forest winter deer habitat in western Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 29(1):27-33.
- Kosterman, M.K., J.R. Squires, J.D. Holbrook, D.H. Pletscher, and M. Hebblewhite. 2018. Forest structure provides the income for reproductive success in a southern population of Canada Lynx. Ecological Applications 28(4):1032-1043.
- Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.
- Lovaas, A.L. 1957. Mule deer food habits and range use in the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 43 p.
- Lunan, J.S. 1972. Phytosociology and fuel description of Pinus ponderosa communities in Glacier National park. M.S. thesis. Department of Botany, University of Montana, Missoula. 79 pp.
- MacCracken, J.G. and D.W. Uresk. 1984. Big game habitat use in southeastern Montana. The Prairie Naturalist 16(3):135-139.
- Martin, P.R. 1973. Ecology of skunkbrush sumac (Rhus trilobata Nutt.) in Montana with special reference to use by mule deer. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 97 p.
- Martinka, R.R. 1970. Structural characteristics and ecological relationships of male blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus (Say)) territories in southwestern Montana. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 73 p.
- Maxwell, B.D. 1984. Changes in an infested plant community after an application of picloram, the effect of glyphosate on bud dormancy, the effect of pulling and the fuel potential of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 73 p.
- Meier, G.A. 1997. The colonization of Montana roadsides by native and exotic plants. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 45 p.
- Miller, J.G. 1978. An ecoligical study of creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis Moench.) in Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 154 p.
- Mosher, B.A. 2011. Avian community response to a mountain beetle epidemic. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 55 p.
- Nelson, G.P. 1986. Responses of elk to a 500 kV transmission line on the North Boulder winter range, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 60 p.
- Northrup, R.D. 1991. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat use during fall and winter on the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 54 p.
- Plantenberg, P.L. 1983. Factors affecting vegetation development on mined land at Colstrip, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 121 p.
- Reese, E.G., L.A. Burkle, C.M. Delphia, and T. Griswold. 2018. A list of bees from three locations in the Northern Rockies Ecoregion (NRE) of western Montana. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e27161.
- Reichel, J.D., D.L. Genter and E. Atkinson. 1992. Sensitive animal species in the Elkhorn and Big Belt Mountains of the Helena National Forest. Unpublished report to the Helena National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 158 p.
- Rennick, R.B. 1981. Effects of prescribed burning on mixed prairie vegetation in southeastern Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 144 p.
- Schomburg, J.W. 2003. Development and evaluation of predictive models for managing Golden Eagle electrocutions. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State Universtiy. 98 p.
- Schubloom, L.A. 1995. Lichens as air quality indicators in three areas of southwestern Montana: lichen floristics and elemental analysis. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 130 p.
- Scow, K.L. 1981. Ecological distribution of small mammals at Sarpy Creek, Montana, with special consideration of the Deer Mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 73 p.
- Selting, J.P. 1994. Seasonal use of agricultural lands by Mule Deer, White-Tailed Deer, and Pronghorn Antelope in Carter County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 66 p.
- Squillace, A. E. 1953. Effect of squirrels on the supply of ponderosa pine seed. USDA For. Serv., N. Rocky Mtn. Exp. Sta., Res. Note 131. 4 pp.
- Stansberry, B.J. 1991. Distribution, movements, and habitat use during spring, summer, and fall by mule deer in the North Salish Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 64 p.
- Stevens, D.R. 1965. Range relationships of elk and livestock in the Crow Creek drainage, Elkhorn Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 68 p.
- Storm, Gerald L. 1963. Porcupine damage in ponderosa pine stands of western Montana. M.S. Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula. 149 pp.
- Tackle, D. 1957. Protection of ponderosa pine cones from cutting by the red squirrel. J. For. 55:446-447.
- Thompson, Scott K. 2002. Browse condition and trend on Montana ungulate ranges. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 147 p.
- Thompson, W. L. 1993. Ecology of Merriam's Turkeys in relation to burned and logged areas in southeastern Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 195 p.
- Trout, R.G. 1978. Small mammal abundance and distribution in the Missouri River Breaks, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 64 p.
- Tuinstra, K. E. 1967. Vegetation of the floodplains and first terraces of Rock Creek near Red Lodge, Montana. Ph.D dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman 110 pp.
- Willard, E.E. and R.H. Wakimoto. 1990. Monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery in ponderosa pine and sedge meadow communities. P. 31 in K. Dimont, comp., Science in Glacier National Park, Glacier Natural History Assoc., West Glacier, MT. 52 pp.