Pallid Bat - Antrozous pallidus
State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Species is rare within range and data to assess threats and population trends does not exist. Limited distribution and low fecundity make this species intrinsically vulnerable to threats.
- Details on Status Ranking and Review
Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus) Conservation Status Review
Review Date = 09/26/2018
ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 km squared (about 8,000-80,000 square miles)
Comment29,840 square Kilometers from Natural Heritage Program range maps.
ScoreE - Relatively Stable (±25% change)
CommentArid habitats in south central Montana have been relatively stable (+/- 25%) since European arrival.
ScoreU - Unknown. Short-term trend in population, range, area occupied, and number and condition of occurrences unknown.
CommentNo data on trends available.
ScoreU - Unknown. The available information is not sufficient to assign degree of threat as above. (Severity, scope, and immediacy are all unknown, or mostly [two of three] unknown or not assessed [null].)
CommentNot enough information exists about this species within Montana to assess threats
ScoreB - Moderately Vulnerable. Species exhibits moderate age of maturity, frequency of reproduction, and/or fecundity such that populations generally tend to recover from decreases in abundance over a period of several years (on the order of 5-20 years or 2-5 generations); or species has moderate dispersal capability such that extirpated populations generally become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans).
CommentSpecies is long lived and has low fecundity. As these animals can fly, dispersal to and recolonization of extirpated populations is possible.
ScoreC - Moderate. Generalist. Broad-scale or diverse (general) habitat(s) or other abiotic and/or biotic factors are used or required by the species but some key requirements are scarce in the generalized range of the species within the area of interest.
CommentSpecies forages in a variety of arid habitats and are most often associated with rock outcrops, which are common across their known range in Montana, but are known to use other roost habitats.
Raw Conservation Status Score
3.5 + 0 (geographic distribution) + 0 (environmental specificity) + 0 (long-term trend) + -0.25 (intrinsic vulnerability) = 3.25
The Pallid Bat is large and pale, with large ears (not joined at base), large eyes, a simple muzzle, and a yellowish drab dorsal pelage that is paler towards the hair tips and darker at the base (palest in deserts, darkest along coast). The calcar lacks a keel. The total length is 92 to 135 millimeters, tail length is 35 to 53 millimeters, hind foot length is 11 to 16 millimeters, ear length is 21 to 37 millimeters, forearm length is 45 to 60 millimeters, and skull length is 18.6 to 24 millimeters. Females tend to be larger than males (mass 13.6 to 24.1 grams in males, 13.9 to 28.0 grams in females) (Hermanson and O'Shea 1983). The skull has 28 teeth (dental formula: I 1/2, C 1/1, P 1/2, M 3/3) (Nagorsen and Brigham 1993).
The Pallid Bat differs from most other Vespertilionids found in Montana in having much larger ears, larger eyes, and paler pelage. The “pig-like” nostrils are also diagnostic. It differs from the Townsend's Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) by lacking the lumps on the nose, having ears that are not joined at the base, a pale rather than brownish pelage, and a larger body size. It differs from the Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum) most noticeably by lacking the dark pelage with the prominent white spots. It is the only bat species found in Montana with two pair of lower incisors. Pallid Bats also have a distinctive skunky odor.
The species is readily identified in-hand, and both roost surveys and mist netting are effective survey tools for detection. Visual encounter surveys of rock outcrops where the observer looks under rocks and in cracks and crevices with a high-powered light have been effective as documenting this species, although detection rates are low. Mist-net captures at drinking sites have been the most effective survey technique. The species is typically captured at moderately sized reservoirs and ponds or smaller water sources that have adequate flyways to allow approach and departure of this large bat.
Detection using acoustic methods is possible. Three long-term detector stations have recorded Pallid Bat call sequences, but confidence in species identification is typically low and high volumes of calls are needed to determine presence.
Western Hemisphere Range
Although the core range of the Pallid Bat in Montana has been characterized, the species may be more broadly distributed than currently recognized. The species has been documented in xeric environments from the Pryor Mountains north to the Bull Mountains and east to the Ashland District of the Custer Gallatin National Forest. These areas are primarily Sagebrush Steppe intermixed with Ponderosa pine or Juniper forest with abundant rock outcrops.
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Whether Pallid Bats migrate to areas within or outside of Montana is currently unknown. The species has not been observed between October and April, but observations are sparse across space and time within Montana so whether this absence represents hibernation or migration is uncertain. Most records are from summer (Shryer and Flath 1980, Worthington 1991, P. Hendricks and J. Carlson personal observation). Little information is available outside of Montana (Barbour and Davis 1969, Schmidly 1991). Distances of fall movements are not known, but Pallid Bats seem to be somewhat sedentary and probably do not move far between summer and winter roosts (Barbour and Davis 1969).
Habitat at the Carbon County sites is Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) and black sagebrush (Artemisia nova). The Rosebud County site is in an area of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Both areas have rock outcrops (limestone or sandstone) in the immediate vicinity or within short flying distance. This species has not yet been detected at caves or abandoned mines in Montana, but has been found using crevices in sandstone outcrops; most observations have been at water sources (spring-fed streams or ponds; e.g. Carbon County) (Shryer and Flath 1980). However, habitat use in Montana by this species remains poorly known and unstudied.
At other locations, Pallid Bats have been found in arid deserts, juniper woodlands, sagebrush shrub-steppe, and grasslands, often with rocky outcrops and water nearby. They are less abundant in evergreen and mixed conifer woodlands, but in British Columbia are found in ponderosa pine forest near cliffs (Nagorsen and Brigham 1993). They typically roost in rock crevices or buildings, less often in caves, tree hollows, under bridges, and in abandoned mines (Hermanson and O'Shea 1983, Verts and Carraway 1998); night roosts often are in caves in Oklahoma (Caire et al. 1989). Four summer roosts in Wyoming were in rock shelters (1), caves (2), and mines (1) (Priday and Luce 1997). Day and night roosts are usually distinct. In Oregon, night roosts were in buildings, under rock overhangs, and under bridges; Pallid Bats generally were faithful to particular night roosts both within and between years (Lewis 1994). Night roosts in British Columbia were often in cavities in ponderosa pine (Nagorsen and Brigham 1993). Day roosts include rock piles, tree hollows, and rock crevices. Pallid Bats found in caves or mines usually use crevices within these places (Hermanson and O'Shea 1983, Caire et al. 1989). Maternity colonies are often located in horizontal crevices in rock outcrops and man-made structures, where temperatures are a fairly constant 30 degrees.
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (common or occasional) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2012, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species' range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point observation database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of "observations versus availability of habitat".
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were listed as associated with an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not listed as associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
Common versus occasional association with an ecological system was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species as represented in scientific literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignment of common versus occasional association.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact the Montana Natural Heritage Program's Senior Zoologist.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: mtnhp.org/requests
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species' known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana's amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Recently Disturbed or Modified
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
The primary diet is arthropods, which are often captured on the ground after an aerial search. They also capture some food (large insects) in flight, within a few meters of ground vegetation. Food items include flightless arthropods, such as scorpions, solpugids, centipedes, Jerusalem crickets, grasshoppers, moths, and beetles; they may eat small vertebrates, such as lizards and mice (O'Shea and Vaughan 1977, Hermanson and O'Shea 1983, Johnston and Fenton 2001). Pallid Bats also visit bat-adapted plants (e.g., Agave), and may be seeking insects (Herrera et al. 1993). In the southern portions of its range it appears to be a facultative nectivore and readily forages on the nectar and fruit of cacti (Frick et al. 2009). Foraging often occurs at 0.5 to 2.5 meters above ground. The diet and foraging behavior in Montana have not been reported or studied.
Pallid Bats are active in Arizona from early April through October; Oregon records extend from mid-April to late September (O'Shea and Vaughan 1977, Verts and Carraway 1998). Relative to other bat species, they emerge from roosts relatively late in the day (45 minutes or more after sunset), which may protect them from some aerial predators. They are a gregarious species. They usually form clusters in diurnal roosts, and may also gather in night roosts that are frequently near, but separate from, day roosts (Lewis 1994). Brazilian Free-tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) and Yuma Myotis (Myotis yumanensis) may roost among Pallid Bats in some regions (Hermanson and O'Shea 1983). Pallid Bats are pollinators of columnar cacti and agaves in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, although they may be visiting the flowers to capture insects (Herrera et al. 1993). There appear to be no estimates of abundance for any locality where this bat occurs. The ecology and predators in Montana have not been studied or reported.
Capture of males, lactating females, and juveniles indicates reproduction is occurring in Montana (Worthington 1991, Foresman 2012), although timing of reproductive events is poorly defined. Lactating females have been captured in early August (P. Hendricks and J. Carlson personal observation), and juveniles in August and early September.
Based upon data gathered from other locations, copulation usually occurs in October to December. Maternity colonies are situated where temperatures are a fairly constant 30 degrees. Fertilization is delayed until spring. In the U.S., young are born in late May to early June in California, mostly late June in Kansas, and probably early May to mid-June in Texas (Schmidly 1991). The normal litter size is 2, but sometimes only one young is born. Young begin to fly at 6 weeks and are weaned in 6 to 8 weeks (Hermanson and O'Shea 1983). In Oregon, reproductive success was reduced in a year with low spring temperatures, and roost-site switching by pregnant and lactating females was correlated to ectoparasite loads (Lewis 1993, 1996). Maternity colonies usually are small, but may include up to 200 adults, including a few adult males (O'Shea and Vaughan 1977, Hermanson and O'Shea 1983, Lewis 1996).
Pallid Bats have persisted for over 20 years in the general area of the state where they were first discovered (Shryer and Flath 1980, Worthington 1991, P. Hendricks and J. Carlson personal observation). This is encouraging, given that essentially nothing is known of abundance, reproductive biology, habitat requirements, movements, and roost site selection in Montana, nor have the potential threats to this bat been identified. The lack of information on this species makes development and implementation of any effective management activity tenuous at best. Fortunately, the roosting habitat often favored by this bat (crevices in cliffs and rock outcrops) provides it protection from many kinds of disturbance. Nevertheless, any roosts that are discovered should be protected and monitored, as Pallid Bats also use abandoned buildings and bridges as roosts. Studies to fill the gaps in our knowledge of this bat in Montana are needed, especially surveys throughout the state in appropriate habitats and landscapes to determine the full extent of its distribution. The most immediate management action that can benefit this species (and other bat species as well) is protection of water sources in arid regions where this bat is present and water sources are limited. Open waste sumps, and similar hazardous standing water bodies associated with oil and gas fields, could present a significant hazard to Pallid Bats and other bat species as these energy resources are exploited.
Pallid Bat is not managed in Montana. It is currently a Species of Conservation Concern, primarily due to limited information and perceived rarity. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) has not been detected on Pallid Bats nor have individuals been found with symptomatic White-Nose Syndrome (WNS, White-Nose Syndrome Response Team 2020). The species distribution is on the leading edge of the disease as it progresses westward, so it is difficult to say whether it is susceptible to WNS or carries Pd. Wind energy does not appear to be a concern for the species as mortalities have not yet been documented (AWII 2018).
Perhaps the most meaningful impacts managers can have on this species in Montana are through conservation of water in dry areas. Pallid bats are relatively large animals and require areas of open water with adequate flyways to drink. Managers should ensure water is present in large stock tanks and reservoirs throughout the spring, summer, and early fall and remove encroaching vegetation that may impede approach or departure from waterbodies.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Barbour, R. W. and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, Kentucky. 286 pp.
- Caire, W., J.D. Tyler, and B.P Glass. 1989. Mammals of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. xiii + 567 pp.
- Foresman, K.R. 2012. Mammals of Montana. Second edition. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana. 429 pp.
- Hermanson, J. W. and T. J. O'Shea 1983. Antrozous pallidus. Mammalian Species 213:1-8.
- Herrera, L. G., T. H. Flemming, and J. S. Findley. 1993. Geographic variation in carbon composition of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, and its dietary implications. Journal of Mammalogy 74:601-606.
- Johnston, D. S. and M. B. Fenton. 2001. Individual and population-level variability in diets of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Mammalogy 82:362-373.
- Lewis, S. E. 1993. Effect of climatic variation on reproduction by pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1429-1433.
- Lewis, S. E. 1994. Night roosting ecology of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in Oregon. American Midland Naturalist 132:219-226.
- Lewis, S. E. 1996. Low roost-site fidelity in pallid bats: associated factors and effect on group stability. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39:335-344.
- Nagorsen, D.W. and R.M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Volume I. The Mammals of British Columbia. UBC Press, Vancouver. 164 pp.
- O'Shea, T. J. and T. A. Vaughn. 1977. Nocturnal and seasonal activities of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus. Journal of Mammalogy 58(3):269-284.
- Priday, J. and B. Luce. 1997. Inventory of bats and bat habitat associated with caves and mines in Wyoming: completion report. p. 50-109. In: Endangered and nongame bird and mammal investigations annual completion report. Unpublished report. Nongame Program, Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 234 pp.
- Schmidly, D. J. 1991. The bats of Texas. Texas A and M University Press, College Station. 188 pp.
- Shryer, J. and D. Flath. 1980. First record of the pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) from Montana. Great Basin Naturalist 40:115.
- Verts, B. J. and L. N. Carraway. 1998. Land mammals of Oregon. University of California Press, Berkeley. xvi + 668 pp.
- Worthington, D. J. 1991. Abundance, distribution, and sexual segregation of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana. M.A. Thesis. University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. 41 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Abernethy, I.M., M.D. Andersen, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration year 2 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West: natural history, ecology and conservation. University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO. 289 pp.
- Agnarsson, I., C.M. Zambrana-Torrelio, N.P. Flores-Saldana, L.J. May-Collado. 2011. A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia). PLoS Currents Tree of Life. Edition1. RRN1212.
- Amichai, E., G. Blumrosen, and Y. Yovel. 2015. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1821): 20152064.
- Andreasen, C.B. and J.R. Dulmstra. Multicentric Malignant Lymphoma in a Pallid Bat. Journal of Wildlife Disease 32(3): 545-547.
- Arnett, E.B. 2007. Presence, relative abundance, and resource selection of bats in managed forest landscapes in western Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
- Arnold, B., and G. Wilkinson. 2011. Individual Specific Contact Calls of Pallid Bats (Antrozous pallidus) Attract Conspecifics at Roosting Sites. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 65(8): 1581-1593.
- Arnold, B.D. and G.S. Wilkinson. 2015. Female Natal Philopatry and Gene Flow between Divergent Clades of Pallid Bats ( Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Mammalogy 96(3): 531-540.
- Bachen, D.A., A.L. McEwan, B.O. Burkholder, S.L. Hilty, S.A. Blum, and B.A. Maxell.. 2018. Bats of Montana: Identification and Natural History. Report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 111pp.
- Bachen, D.A., and B.A. Maxell. 2014. Distribution and status of bird, small mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, South Dakota Field Office-BLM. Report to the Bureau of Land Management, South Dakota Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana 25 pp. plus appendices.
- Baker, M.D., M.J. Lacki, G.A. Falxa, P.L. Droppelman, R.A. Slack, and S.A. Slankard. 2008. Habitat Use of Pallid Bats in Coniferous Forests of Northern California. Northwest Science 82(4): 269-275.
- Baker, R.H. and C.J. Phillips. 1965. Mammals from El Nevado de Colima, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 46(4): 691-693.
- Ball, L.C. 2002. A Strategy for Describing and Monitoring Bat Habitat. The Journal of Wildlife Management 66(4):1148-1153.
- Barclay, R.M.R. 1991. Population Structure of Temperate Zone Insectivorous Bats in Relation to Foraging Behavior and Energy Demand. Journal of Animal Ecology 60(1): 165.
- Basset, J.E. 1984. Litter size and postnatal growth rate in the Pallid Bat, Antrozous pallidus. Journal of Mammalogy 65(1): 62-75.
- Bat Conservation International. G4 Harp Trap: Assembly and Advice. 8 p.
- Baxter, D.M., J.M. Psyllakis, M.P. Gillingham, and E.L. O'Brien. 2006. Behavioural response of bats to perceived predation risk while foraging. Ethology 112(10): 977-983.
- Beasley, L.J., and I. Zucker. 1984. Photoperiod Influences the Annual Reproductive Cycle of the Male Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 70(2): 567-573.
- Beasley, L.J., L. Smale, and E.R. Smith. 1984. Melatonin influences the reproductive physiology of male pallid bats. Biology of Reproduction 30(2): 300-305.
- Bell, G.P. 1982. Behavioral and Ecological Aspects of Gleaning by a Desert Insectivorous Bat, Antrozous pallidus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10(3): 217-223.
- Bell, J.F., G.J. Moore, G.H. Raymond, and C.E. Tibbs. 1962. Characteristics of Rabies in Bats in Montana. American Journal of Public Health 52(8): 1293-1301.
- Bell, J.F., W.J. Hadlow and W.L. Jellison. 1957. A survey of chiropteran rabies in western Montana. Public Health Reports. 72(1): 16-18.
- Bender, M.J. and G.D. Hartman. 2015. Bat Activity Increases with Barometric Pressure and Temperature During Autumn in Central Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 14(2): 231-242.
- Berthinussen, A. and J. Altringham. 2012. The effect of a major road on bat activity and diversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 82-89.
- Bogan, M.A., and K. Geluso. 1999. Bat roosts and historic structures on National Park Service lands in the Rocky Mountain region. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Geological Survey, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, Dept. of Biology, the University of New Mexico. Unpublished report. 25 pp
- British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. 1998. Inventory Methods for Bats; Standards for Components of British Columbia's Biodiversity No. 20. Prepared for the Terrestrial Ecosystems Task Force Resources Inventory Committee. Version 2.0. 58 p.
- Brown, P. 1976. Vocal Communication in the Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus). Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie 41(1): 34-54.
- Brown, P. 1982. Activity Patterns and Foraging Behavior in Antrozous pallidus as Determined by Radiotelemetry. Bat Research News 23(4): 62.
- Bunkley, J.P. and J.R. Barber. 2014. An Observation of Apparent Teaching Behavior in the Pallid Bat, Antrozous pallidus. Western North American Naturalist 74(2): 249-252
- Bunkley, J.P. and J.R. Barber. 2015. Noise Reduces Foraging Efficiency in Pallid Bats ( Antrozous pallidus). Ethology 121(11): 1116-1121.
- Butts, T. 1997. Bat surveys Indian Creek Canyon, Elkhorn Mountains, Montana. Continental Divide Wildlife Consulting. Helena, MT 32 pg.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A preliminary survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest, Montana: 1991. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 35 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Deerlodge National Forest Montana: 1992. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 39 pp.
- Butts, T.W. 1993. A survey of the bats of the Townsend Ranger District, Helena National Forest, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 16 pp.
- Callahan, E.V. and R.D. Drobney. 1997. Selection of summer roosting sites by Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in Missouri. Journal of Mammalogy 78(3): 818.
- Carlson, J.C. and P. Hendricks. 2001. A Proposal for: Bat Use of Highway Structures: A Pilot Study. Submitted to the Montana Department of Transportation.
- Carlson, J.C. and S.V. Cooper. 2003. Plant and Animal Resources and Ecological Condition of the Forks Ranch Unit of the Padlock Ranch, Big Horn County, Montana and Sheridan County, Wyoming. Unpublished report to The Nature Conservancy Montana Field Office.
- Chester, J.M., N.P. Campbell, K. Karsmizki, and D. Wirtz. 1979. Resource inventory and evaluation. Azure Cave, Montana. BLM unpublished report. 55 pp.
- Chew, R. M., and H. E. White, November 1960, Evaporative Water Losses of the Pallid Bat
- Choate, J. R. and J. M. Anderson. 1997. Bats of Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 29:39-47.
- Christy, R. E. and S. W. West. 1993. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests. U.S.D.A., Forest Serv., Pac. Northw. res. Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-308.
- Chung-MacCoubrey, A.L. 2005. Use of pinyon–juniper woodlands by bats in New Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 204: 209–220.
- Clement, M.J., J.M. O'Keefe, and B. Walters. 2015. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. Ecosphere 6(10): 184.
- Clement, M.J., T.J. Rodhouse, P.C. Ormsbee, J.M. Szewczak, and J.D. Nichols. 2014. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(5): 1460-1467.
- Cockrum, E.L., B. Musgrove, and Y. Peteryszyn. 1996. Bats of Mohave County, Arizona: populations and movements. Occasional Papers of The Museum, Texas Tech University 157: 1-71.
- Coleman, J.L. and R.R. Barclay. 2013. Prey availability and foraging activity of grassland bats in relation to urbanization. Journal of Mammalogy 94(5): 1111-1122.
- Corbett, J. 2011. Evaluation and management of select natural cave and abandoned mine features of the Lewis & Clark and Helena National Forests, Montana. Bat Conservation International. 18pp plus appendices.
- Cryan, P. M., M. A. Bogan, and J. S. Altenbach. 2000. Effect of elevation on distribution of female bats in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 81:719-725.
- Cvikel, N., E. Levin, E. Hurme, I. Borissov, A. Boonman, E. Amichai, and Y. Yovel. 2015. On-board recordings reveal no jamming avoidance in wild bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, The Royal Society 282(1798).
- Davis, R. 1966. Homing performance and homing ability in bats. Ecological Monographs 36(3): 201-237.
- Davis, R. 1968. Wing Defects in a Population of Pallid Bats. American Midland Naturalist 79(2): 388-395.
- Davis, R. 1969. Wing loading in Pallid Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 50(1): 140-144.
- Davis, R. November 1969, Growth and development of young Pallid Bats, Antrozous pallidus. Journal of Mammalogy 50(4):729-736.
- Davis, W.B. 1937. Some mammals from western Montana and eastern Idaho. The Murrelet 18(2): 22-27.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part I: Control. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2. 6 p.
- Department of Health and Environmental Sciences Food and Consumer Safety Bureau. 1981. Montana Bats Part II: Identification and Biology. Vector Control Bulletin Number 2A. 10 p.
- Dubois, K. 1999. Region 4 bat surveys: 1998 progress report. Unpublished report, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Region 4 Headquarters, Great Falls, Montana. 20 pp.
- DuBois, K. 2000. Species occurrence and Distribution of Bats in North Central Montana: Range Map Changes Resulting from Two Years of Field Surveys. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 6(4): 376.
- Ducummon, S.L. 1997. The North American bats and mines project: a cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation. Paper presented at the 1997 National Meeting of the American Society for Mining and Reclamation, Austin, Texas.
- Duff, A.A. and T.E. Morrell. 2007. Predictive Occurrence Models for Bat Species in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(3): 693-700.
- Easterla, D. A. 1973. Ecology of the 18 species of Chiroptera at Big Bend National Park, Texas. Part I and II. Northwest Missouri State University Studies 34:1-165.
- Engstrom, M.D., and D.E. Wilson. 1981. Systematics of Antrozous dubiaquercus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), with comments on the status of Bauerus van gelder. Annals of Carnegie Museum 50:371-383.
- Feigley, H.P. 1998. An Examination of the Issues and Feasibility of Conducting Surveys of Abandoned Mines for Bats. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Feigley, H.P., M. Brown, S. Martinez, and K. Schletz. 1997.Assessment of mines for importance to bat species of concern, southwestern Montana. Report to: U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center; 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400. 9pp.
- Fenton, M.B. 1990. The Foraging Behavior and Ecology of Animal-Eating Bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(3): 411-422.
- Fenton, M.B. 2003. Science and the conservation of bats: where to next? Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(1) 6-15.
- Flath, D.L. 1979. Nongame species of special interest or concern: Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes. Wildlife Division, Montana Department of Fish and Game. Helena, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. American Society of Mammalogists, Special Publication Number 12. Lawrence, KS. 278 pp.
- Frick, W., J. Shipley, J. Kelly, P. Heady, and K. Kay. 2014. Seasonal reliance on nectar by an insectivorous bat revealed by stable isotopes. Oecologia 174(1): 55-65.
- Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, P.A. Heady III. 2008. Patterns of island occupancy in bats: influences of area and isolation on insular incidence of volant mammals. Global Ecology & Biogeography 17(5): 622-632.
- Frick, W.F., P.A. Heady iii, and J.P. Hayes. 2009. Facultative Nectar-Feeding Behavior in a Gleaning Insectivorous Bat (Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Mammalogy 90(5): 1157-1164.
- Fuzessery, Z.M., P. Buttenhoff, B. Andrews, and J.M. Kennedy. 1993. Passive sound localization of prey by the pallid bat (Antrozous p. pallidus). Journal of Comparative Physiology 171(6): 767-777.
- Geluso, K. 2007. Winter activity of bats over water and along flyways in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 52(4): 482-492.
- Geluso, K., and L.N. Mink. 2009. Use of Bridges by Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist, 54(4), 421-429.
- Genoways, H. H., and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1972. Mammals from southwestern North Dakota. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University 6:1-36.
- Genter, D. L. 1986. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves. Great Basin Naturalist 46(2):241-244.
- Genter, D.L. and K.A. Jurist. 1995. Bats of Montana. Guide for Assessing Mines for Bats Workshop, June 14-15, 1995, Helena, MT, hosted by Montana Department of State Lands and the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 11 pp.
- Grindal, S.D., T.S. Collard and R.M. Brigham. 1991. Evidence for a breeding population of pallid bats, Antrozous pallidus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum, Contributions to Natural Science 14:1-4.
- Griscom, H.R. and D.A. Keinath. 2011. Inventory and status of bats at Devils Tower National Monument. Report prepared for the USDI National Park Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Griscom, H.R., M.D. Anderson, and D.A. Keinath. 2012. Bats of southern Wyoming: distribution and migration, year 1 report. Prepared for the USDI Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Hall, E.R. 1981. The mammals of North America, volumes I and II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 1181 pp.
- Hanauska-Brown, L., B.A. Maxell, A. Petersen, and S. Story. 2014. Diversity Monitoring in Montana 2008-2010 Final Report. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. Helena, MT. 78 pp.
- Harmata, A., D. Flath, R. Hazlewood, and S. Milodragovich. 2002. Initial Site Evaluation for Wind Resource Development in Montana: An Index Relative to Potential Impacts on Vertebrate Wildlife. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 8(4): 253-254.
- Harvey, M.J., J.S. Altenbach, and T.L. Best. 2011. Bats of the United States and Canada. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. p. 202
- Hein, C.D., S.B. Castleberry, and K.V. Miller. 2009. Site-occupancy of bats in relation to forested corridors. Forest Ecology and Management 257(4): 1200-1207.
- Hendricks, P. 1997. Mine assessments for bat activity, Garnet Resource Area, BLM: 1997. Unpublished report to USDI, Bureau of Land Management. 17pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1998. Bats surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1997-1998. November 1998.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Effect of gate installation on continued use by bats of four abandoned mine workings in western Montana. Unpublished report to Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 1999. Mine Assessments for Bat Activity, Helena National Forest: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in the Philipsburg, Montana area: 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.13pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Bat survey along the Norris-Madison Junction Road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 15pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2000. Preliminary bat inventory of caves and abandoned mines on BLM lands, Judith Mountains, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 21 pp.
- Hendricks, P. 2003. Assessment of Selected Abandoned Mines for Use by Bats in the Garnet and Avon Areas: 2002. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 12 p.
- Hendricks, P. and B.A. Maxell. 2005. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region Lands in Montana: 2005. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 12 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P. and D. Kampwerth. 2001. Roost environments for bats using abandoned mines in southwestern Montana : a preliminary assessment. Report to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 19 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and D.L. Genter. 1997. Bat surveys of Azure Cave and the Little Rocky Mountains: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 25 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and J.C. Carlson. 2001. Bat use of abandoned mines in the Pryor Mountains. Report to the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Mine Waste Cleanup Bureau. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 8 pp.
- Hendricks, P. and L.M. Hendricks. 2010. Water Aquistion During Daylight by Free-Ranging Myotis Bats. Northwestern Naturalist 91(3): 336-338.
- Hendricks, P., B.A. Maxell, S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2006. Riparian Bat Surveys in Eastern Montana. A report to the USDI Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 13 pp. plus appendices.
- Hendricks, P., C. Currier, and J. Carlson. 2004. Bats of the BLM Billings Field Office in south-central Montana, with emphasis on the Pryor Mountains. Report to Bureau of Land Management Billings Field Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 19 pp. + appendices.
- Hendricks, P., D. Kampwerth and M. Brown. 1999. Assessment of abandoned mines for bat use on Bureau of Land Management lands in southwestern Montana: 1997-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 29 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Sioux District, Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, Montana. 41 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter and J.D. Reichel. 1996. Bats of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 99 pp.
- Hendricks, P., K.A. Jurist, D.L. Genter, and J.D. Reichel. 1995. Bat survey of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana: 1994. MTNHP report.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier and J. Johnson. 2005. Bat Use of Highway Bridges in South-Central Montana. FHWA/MT-05-007/8159. Final Report prepared for the Montana Department of Transportation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, prepared by the Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, P., S. Lenard, C. Currier, and B.A. Maxell. 2007. Filling the distribution gaps for small mammals in Montana. Helena, MT.: Montana Natural Heritage Program.
- Hendricks, Paul. 2012. Winter Records of Bats in Montana. Northwestern Naturalist. 93:154-162.
- Herreid, C.I. 1961. Notes on the pallid bat in Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 6(1): 13-20.
- Hill J.E. and J.D. Smith: 1984. Bats: a natural history. Univ. Texas Press Austin. 243 pp.
- Hinman, K.E. and T.K. Snow, eds. 2003. Arizona Bat Conservation Strategic Plan. Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program Technical Report 213. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
- Holroyd, S.L., V.J. Craig, and P. Govindarajulu. 2016. Best Management Practices for Bats in British Columbia. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 301pp.
- Humphrey, S. R. 1975. Nursery roosts and community diversity of Nearctic bats. Journal of Mammalogy 56:321-346.
- Jean, C., P. Hendricks, M. Jones, S. Cooper, and J. Carlson. 2002. Ecological communities on the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: inventory and review of aspen and wetland systems. Report to Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge.
- Jiang, T., H. Wu, J. Feng. 2015. Patterns and causes of geographic variation in bat echolocation pulses. Integrative Zoology 10(3): 241-256.
- Jones, J.K., Jr., R.P. Lampe, C.A. Spenrath, and T.H. Kunz. 1973. Notes on the distribution and natural history of bats in southeastern Montana. Occasional papers (Texas Tech University Museum) 15:1-11.
- Keeley, B. W., and M. D. Tuttle. 1999. “Bats in American Bridges.” Resource Publication No. 4. Bat Conservation International. Austin, TX. 41 p.
- Keinath, D. 2004. Bat and Terrestrial Mammal Inventories in the Greater Yellowstone Network: A progress report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 17 pp.
- Keinath, D. 2005. Supplementary Mammal Inventory of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Final Report. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 21 pp.
- Keinath, D.A. 2001. Bat Habitat Delineation and Survey Suggestions for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Unpublished report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for the North American Bat Conservation Partnership.
- Keinath, D.A. 2005. A bat Conservation Evaluation for White Grass Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Unpublished report for Grand Teton National Park by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Data Base, Laramie, WY.
- Keinath, D.A. 2007. Yellowstone's World of Bats: Taking Inventory of Yellowstone's Night Life. Yellowstone Science 15: 3-13.
- Khaleel, A.R. and Z.M. Fuzessery. 2015. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat. Journal of Developmental Neurobiology 75(10): 1125-1139.
- Kingston, T., G. Jones, Z. Akbar, and T.H. Kunz. 2003. Alternation of echolocation calls in 5 species of aerial-feeding insectivorous bats from Malaysia. Journal of Mammalogy 84(1): 205-215.
- Kubista, C.E. and A. Bruckner. 2015. Importance of urban trees and buildings as daytime roosts for bats. Biologia 70(11): 1545-1552.
- Kudray, G.M., P. Hendricks, E. Crowe, and S.V. Cooper. 2004. Riparian forests of the Wild and Scenic Missouri River: ecology and management. Prepared for Lewistown Field Office, Bureau of Land Management, Lewistown, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 29 pp. plus appendices.
- Kuenzi, A. J., G. T. Downard, and M. L. Morrison. 1999. Bat distribution and hibernacula use in west central Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 59:213-220.
- Kunz, T. H. (ed). 1988. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Smithsonian Inst., Washington D.C., 533 pp.
- Kunz, T.H. and M.B. Fenton. 2003. Bat Ecology. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. p. 1-745.
- Kunz, T.H. and P.A. Racey. 1998. Bat biology and conservation. International Bat Research Conference 1995. Boston University. Smithsonian Institution Press.
- Lack, J.B., J.E. Wilkinson, and R.A. Van Den Bussche. 2010. Range-Wide Population Genetic Structure of the Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus) -- Incongruent Results from Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA. Acta Chiropterologica 12(2): 401-413.
- LaMarr, S. and A.J. Kuenzi. 2011. Bat species presence in southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 17:1-4. Pp 14-19.
- Lampe, R.P., J.K. Jones Jr., R.S. Hoffmann, and E.C. Birney. 1974. The mammals of Carter County, southeastern Montana. Occa. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kan. 25:1-39.
- Lemke, T. 1991. Big Sky UFOs. Montana Outdoors 22(6):2-7.
- Lenard, S., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and C. Currier. 2007. Bat Surveys on USFS Northern Region 1 Lands in Montana: 2006. Report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 23 pp. plus appendices.
- Lenard, S., P. Hendricks, and B.A. Maxell. 2009. Bat surveys on USFS Northern Region lands in Montana: 2007. A report to the USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Helena, MT. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 21 pp plus appendices.
- Lenhart, P.A., V. Mata-Silva, and J.D. Johnson. 2010. Foods of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in the Chihuahuan desert of western Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 55(1): 110-115.
- Lewis, S. E. 1995. “Roost Fidelity of Bats: a Review.” Journal of Mammalogy 76:481-496.
- Licht, P., and P. Leitner, February 1967, Behavioral Repsonses to High Temperatures in Three Species of California Bats
- Lilley, T.M., J.S. Johnson, L. Ruokolainen, E.J. Rogers, C.A. Wilson, S.M. Schell, K.A. Field, and D.M. Reeder. 2016. White-nose syndrome survivors do not exhibit frequent arousals associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection. Frontiers in Zoology 13(1): 1.
- Madson, M. and G. Hanson. 1992. Bat hibernaculum search in the Pryor Mountains, southcentral Montana (Draft). Montana Natural Heritage Program. 35 pp.
- Madson. M. 1990. Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, with maps. 6 pp.
- Martin, C. O., and D. J. Schmidly. 1982. Taxonomic review of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus (Le Conte). Spec. Publ. Mus., Texas Tech. Univ. 18:1-48.
- Martinez, S. 1999. Evaluation of selected bat habitat sites along the Mammoth-Norris grand loop road corridor, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1997-1998. [Unpublished report submitted to the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT]. 16pp.
- Mathews, F., N. Roche, T. Aughney, N. Jones, J. Day, J. Baker, and S. Langton. 2015. Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370(1667): 20140124.
- Matthews, W. L., and J. E. Swenson. 1982. The mammals of east-central Montana. Proc. Mont. Acad. Sci. 41:1-13.
- McGee, M., D.A. Keinath and G.P. Beauvais. 2002. Survey for rare vertebrates in the Pinedale Field Office of the USDI Bureau of Land Management (Wyoming). Unpublished report prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management. Wyoming State Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
- Montana Bat Working Group. 2020. Recommendations to reduce bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in Montana. Presented to the Montana Fish and Wildlife Commission.
- Mumford, R. E. And J. B. Cope. 1964. Distribution and Status of the Chrioptera of Indiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 72(2):473-489.
- Nagorsen, D.W., A.A. Bryant, D. Kerridge, G. Roberts, A. Roberts, and M.J. Sarell. 1993. Winter bat records for British Columbia. Northwestern Naturalist. 74(3): 61-66.
- Natural Resources Conservation Service and Bat Conservation International. 1998. Bats and mines: Evaluating abandoned mines for bats: recommendations for survey and closure. 6 p.
- Neuweiler, G. 1989. Foraging ecology and audition in echolocating bats. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4(6): 160-166.
- Neuweiler, G. 1990. Auditory adaptations for prey capture in echolocating bats. Physiological Reviews 70(3): 615-641.
- Nowak, R.M. and E.P. Walker. 1994. Walker's bats of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland.
- O¿Shea, T. J., and T. A. Vaughan. 1999. Population changes in bats from central Arizona: 1972 and 1977. Southwestern Naturalist 44:495-500.
- O'Farrell, M. J. and W. G. Bradley. 1970. Activity patterns of bats over a desert spring. J. Mammal. 51(1):18-26.
- O'Farrell, M. J., et al. 1967. Fall and winter bat activity at a desert spring in southern Nevada. The Southwestern Naturalist 12(2):163-171.
- Olson, C.R., D.P. Hobson, and M.J. Pybus. 2011. Changes in Population Size of Bats at a Hibernaculum in Alberta, Canada, in Relation to Cave Disturbance and Access Restrictions. Northwestern Naturalist 92(3): 224-230.
- Orr, R.T. 1954. Natural history of the Pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus (Le conte). Proceedings of the California Acadamy of Sciences 82:165-246.
- Peck, J. and A. Kuenzi. 2003. Relationship of Orientation on Internal Temperature of Artificial Bat Roosts, Southwestern Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 9(1): 19-25.
- Perkins, J. M., J. M. Barss, and J. Peterson. 1990. Winter records of bats in Oregon and Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 71:59-62.
- Priday, J., and B. Luce. 1997. Inventory of bats and bat habitat associated with caves and mines in Wyoming: completion report. Pp. 50-109 in Endangered and nongame bird and mammal investigations annual completion report. Nongame Program, Biological Services Section, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming.
- Quay, W.B. 1948. Notes on Some Bats from Nebraska and Wyoming. Journal of Mammalogy 29(2): 181-182.
- Rabe, M. J., T. E. Morrell, H. Green, J. C. demos, Jr., and C. R. Miller. 1998. Characteristics of ponderosa pine snag roosts used by reproductive bats in northeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:612-621.
- Rambaldini, D.A. and R.M. Brigham. 2011. Pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) Foraging Over Native and Vineyard Habitats in British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89: 816-822.
- Rambaldini, D.A., and M.A. Bridham. 2008. Torpor Use by Free-Ranging Pallid Bats (Antrozous pallidus) at the Northern Extent of Their Range. Journal of Mammalogy 89(4): 933-941.
- Reid, F. 2006. Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 608 pp.
- Rodhouse, T.J., P.C. Ormsbee, K.M. Irvine, L.A. Vierling, J.M. Szewczak, and K.T. Vierling. 2015. Establishing conservation baselines with dynamic distribution models for bat populations facing imminent decline. Diversity and Distributions 21(12): 1401-1413.
- Roemer, D.M. 1994. Results of field surveys for bats on the Kootenai National Forest and the Lolo National Forest of western Montana, 1993. Unpublished report for the Kootenai National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 19 pp.
- Rossillon, M. 1995. The McDonald Mine, west of Ravalli: a cultural resource inventory and evaluation. Renewable Technologies, Inc.. Butte. MT. Unpublished report. 24 pp.
- Sasse, D. 1989. Lick Creek Cave - Survey for Bats. White Sulfur Springs, MT: USDA Forest Service, Lewis & Clark National Forest. Report to the district ranger of Kings Hill Ranger District.
- Sasse, D. C. 1991 . Survey of Tate-Potter Cave. Unpublished report, U.S. Forest Service Belt Creek Information Station, Neihart, MT. 1 3 pp.
- Schmidt, U. and G. Joermann. 1986. The Influence of Acoustical Interferences on Echolocation in Bats. Mammalia 50(3): 379-390.
- Schorr, R.A. and J.L. Siemers. 2013. Characteristists of Roots of Male Pallid Bats (Antrozous pallidus) in Southeastern Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 58(4): 470-474.
- Schwab, N.A. 2004. Bat Conservation Strategy and plan for the State of Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 10(1-4): 80.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2003. Mine Assessments for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2003. Report to USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 10pp.
- Schwab, Nathan. 2004. Mine Assessment for Bat Activity on Lands Managed by the BLM, Missoula Field Office 2004. USDI BLM Missoula FO. Missoula, MT. 16 pp.
- Sherwin, R.E., J.S. Altenbach, and D.L. Waldien. 2009. Managing abandoned mines for bats. Bat Conservation International.
- Storer, T. 1931. A colony of pacific pallid bats. Journal of Mammalogy 12(3): 244-247.
- Swenson, J. E. and J. C. Bent. 1977. The bats of Yellowstone County, southcentral Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 37:82-84.
- Swenson, J.E. and G.F. Shanks, Jr. 1979. Noteworthy records of bats from northeastern Montana. Journal of Mammalogy. 60(3): 650-652
- Taylor, D.A.R. and M.D. Tuttle. 2007. Water for wildlife: a handbook for ranchers and range managers. Bat Conservation International. 20 p.
- Thomas, D.W. 1995. Hibernating Bats Are Sensitive to Nontactile Human Disturbance. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 940-946.
- Tigner, J. and E.D. Stukel. 2003. Bats of the Black Hills: a description of status and conservation needs. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Wildlife Division Report 2003-05. 94 p.
- Tigner, Joel. 2005. Active Season Bat Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, MT. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 16pp.
- Tigner, Joel. 2006. Bat Hibernacula Surveys of Select Abandoned Mines in the Thompson River Valley, Sanders County, Montana. BATWORKS, Rapid City, SD. 9pp.
- Tigner, Joel. 2007. Bat hibernacula surveys (in) gated mines, Pryor Mountains, Carbon County, Montana - Report to BLM. Batworks 2416 Cameron Drive, Rapid City, SD 57702.
- Trune, D. R. and C. N. Slobodchikoff. 1977. Position of immatures in pallid bat clusters: a case of reciprocal altruism? Journal of Mammalogy 59(1):193-195.
- Trune, D.R. and C.N. Slobodchikoff. 1976. Social effects of roosting on the metabolism of the Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Mammalogy 57(4):656-663.
- Turner, R. W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas Misc. Pub. No. 60. 178 pp.
- Tuttle, M.D. and D.A.R. Taylor. 1998. Bats and mines. Bat Conservation International, Inc. Resource Publication No. 3. 52 p.
- Tuttle, S.R., C.L. Chambers, and T.C. Theimer. 2006. Potential Effects of Livestock Water-Trough Modifications on Bats in Northern Arizona. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(3): 602-608.
- Twente, J. W., Jr. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats. Ecology 36(4): 706-732.
- Van Gelder, R.G. 1956. Echo-location failure in migratory bats. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 59(2): 220-222.
- Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. and P. Geraghty. 1985. Handbook of Canadian Mammals: Volume 2: Bats. Canadian Museum of Nature. 212 p.
- Vaughan, T.A. and T.J. O'Shea. 1976. Roosting ecology of the Pallid Bat, Antrozous pallidus. Journal of Mammalogy 57:19-42.
- Vonhof, M. J., and R.M.R. Barclay. 1996. Roost-site selection and roosting ecology of forest-dwelling bats in southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:1797-1805.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2000, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1999 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1998 - November 30, 1999. February 2000.
- Weller, T.J. and D.C. Lee. 2007. Mist Net Effort Required to Inventory a Forest Bat Species Assemblage. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 251-257.
- Weyandt, S.E. and R.A. Van Den Bussche. 2007. Phylogeographic structuring and volant mammals: the case of the pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Biogeography 34(7): 1233-1245.
- Williams, J.A., M.J. O'Farrell, and B.R. Riddle. 2006. Habitat Use by Bats in a Riparian Corridor of the Mojave Desert in Southern Nevada. Journal of Mammalogy 87(6): 1145-1153.
- Willis, C.K. 2015. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host–Pathogen Systems. Integrative Comparative Biology 55(4): 631-641
- Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp.
- Wilson, D. E., F. R. Cole, J. D. Nichols, R. Rudran, and M. S. Foster, (eds.). 1996. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for mammals. Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. 409 pp.
- Wolfe, M.L. and A. Kozlowski. 2006. Bat inventories at Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site and Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, FInal Report. Rocky Mountains Cooperative Ecosystems Studies Unit. Utah State University. Logan, UT. 26 pp.
- Worthington, D.J. 1991. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana and north eastern Wyoming. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.
- Worthington, D.J. and H.N. Ross. 1990. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana. Unpublished report for the Montana Natural Heritage Program. 20 p.
- Zukal, J., J. Pikula, and H. Bandouchova. 2015. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect. Mammalian Biology 80(3): 220-227.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Mammals"