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Montana Field Guides

Cultivated Wheat - Triticum aestivum
Other Names:  Common Wheat, Bread Wheat

Non-native Species

Global Rank: GNR
State Rank: SNA

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 1

External Links






 
General Description
Cool season, annual bunchgrass. Stems 50–120 cm. Leaves: blades 5–15 mm wide, flat and lax to ascending; sheaths with overlapping margins; ligule membranous. Inflorescence 5–12 cm long, a two-sided terminal spike with short internodes; rachis continuous. Spikelets 1 per node, 10–14 mm long excluding awns, with 3 to 5 florets, glumes asymmetrically keeled, broad and blunt, often notched at the tip. Lemmas broad, also asymmetrically keeled, awned or awnless; palea well developed. Disarticulation above the glumes; unit of dispersal the fruit (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range

Non-native
 


Range Comments
Escaping or planted for soil stabilization throughout all of North America, but then not long persisting (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 20

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat

Management

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Biyiklioglu, S., B. Alpetekin, B.A. Akpinar, A.C. Varella, M.L. Hofland, D.K. Weaver, B. Bothner, H. Budak. 2018. A large-scale multiomics analysis of wheat stem solidness and the wheat stem sawfly feeding response, and syntenic associations in barley, Brachypodium, and rice. Functional and Integrative Genomics (2018) 18:241-259
    • Brey, C.W. 1998. Epidemiology of wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella K.) and wheat streak mosaic virus on feral grass species and effect of glyphosate on wheat curl mite dispersal. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 136 p.
    • Burkhardt, A. 2019. Elucidating the effect of anthropogenic land management on soil nematode community structure. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 101 p.
    • Burns, E.E. 2017. Genetic and physiological characterization and ecological management of non-target site resistance in multiple herbicide resistant Avena fatua L. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 175 p.
    • Carroll, M.W. 1998. Influence of a legume covercrop on volunteer wheat, the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella (K.) and wheat streak mosaic virus. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 78 p.
    • Enk, E.A. 1999. Population dynamics of bighorn sheep on the Beartooth Wildlife Management Area, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 177 p.
    • Fritzen, D.E. 1995. Ecology and behavior of Mule Deer on the Rosebud Coal Mine, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 143 p.
    • Garcia, C. 1986. Effect of sterol-biosynthesis inhibiting fungicides on take-all of spring wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 67 p.
    • Gaudet, M.D.H. 1978. Factors influencing the determination of wing formation in the aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphidae). M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 39 p.
    • Gillespie, R.L.1992. Dynamics of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) at a rangeland-crop interference. Ph.D. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 111 p.
    • Goosey, H.B. 1999. In field distributions of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), and evaluation of selected tactics for an integrated management program. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 83 p.
    • Gress, J.C. 2014. Discovery and characterization of olfactory-related genes in the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, a major pest of wheat in the Northern Plains. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 223 p.
    • Grimme, E. 2004. Effects of mycofumigation using Muscodor albus and Muscodor roseus on diseases of sugar beet and chrysanthemum. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 86 p.
    • Harrison, L.A. 1989. Purification and characterization of Pseudomycin, a phytotoxin and antimycotic produced by Pseudomonas syringae. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 55 p.
    • Hemming, B.C. 1982. Plant-associated fluorescent pseudomonads: their systematic analysis, microbial antagonism and iron interaction. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 154 p.
    • Ito, D. 2011. Evaluation of susceptibility to wheat streak mosaic virus among small grains and alternative hosts in the great plains. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 93 p.
    • Kim, H.K. 1982. Epidemiological, genetical, and physiological studies of the bacterial leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens (J.J.R.) Dowson. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 83 p.
    • Kleis, M.M. 1984. Diclofop-methyl interactions with soil-borne fungal pathogens in wheat. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 49 p.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Lou, K. 1997. RAPD-PCR to detect genomic polymorphisms among geographically-dispersed populations of Cephus cinctus. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 63 p.
    • Madariaga, R.B. 1984. Interactions of Puccinia striiformis and Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 77 p.
    • Morales-Rodriguez, A. 2014. The composition of wireworm species in Montana wheat and barley fields and its effect on developing IPM programs. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 225 p.
    • Morales-Rodriguez, A., A. Ospina, and K.W. Wanner. 2017. Evaluation of four bait traps for sampling wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) infesting cereal crops in Montana. International Journal of Insect Science 9: 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1177/11795433177092
    • Moya, E.A. 2010. Distribution and interaction of Fusarium crown rot and common root rot pathogens of wheat in Montana and development of an integrated management program for Fusarium crown rot. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 213 p.
    • Murphy, C.Y. 2016. Chemical control and disease reservoir studies of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) vector to wheat streak mosaic virus. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 75 p.
    • O'Connor, K.S. 1987. Ecology of white-tailed deer and mule deer in agricultural lands in the Gallatin Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 67 p.
    • Peck, G.E. 2004. Potential semiochemicals of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) induced by oviposition and feed of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 65 p.
    • Quire, R.L. 2013. The sagebrush steppe of Montana and southeastern Idaho shows evidence of high native plant diversity, stability, and resistance to the detrimental effects of nonnative plant species. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 124 p.
    • Robertson, N.L. 1987. A new virus-like disease of barley : its etiology, epidemiology, and the ultrastructure of associated virus-like particles. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 96 p.
    • Roemhild, G.R. 1954. Morphological resistance of some of the Gramineae to the Wheat Stem Sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton). M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 42 p.
    • Runyon, J.B. 2001. Wheat Stem Sawfly parasitism in varying field sizes and tillage systems in dryland wheat in Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 75 p.
    • Seipel, T.F. 2006. Plant species diversity in the sagebrush steppe of Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 87 p.
    • Smidansky, E.D. 1995. Factors influencing the outcome of barley yellow streak mosaic virus-Petrobia latens-barley interactions. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 68 p.
    • Strobel, G. 2018. The emergence of endophytic microbes and their biological promise. Journal of Fungi 4(57). 16 p. doi:10.3390/jof4020057
    • Sun, Z. 2008. The pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. to wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 156 p.
    • Talajoor, M., X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Zhang, S. Bhavani, L. Tabe, E. Lagudah, and L. Huang. 2016. Wheat mutant MNR220 delays haustoria formation during leaf rust pathogenesis at the seedling stage. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 38(3): 338-347. DOI: 10.1080/07060661.2016.1205663.
    • Tharp, C. I. 1998. Laboratory and field evaluations of imidacloprid against the Migratory Grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.), and the Cereal Leaf Beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), on small grain. M. Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 82 p.
    • Varella, A.C. 2016. Genetic basis of wheat resistance to the wheat stem sawfly. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 135 p.
    • Varella, A.C., D.K. Weaver, J.P. Cook, N.K. Blake, M.L. Hofland, P.F. Lamb, and L.E. Talbert. 2017. Characterization of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly in spring wheat landrace accessions from targeted geographic regions of the world. Euphytica 213(7): 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s10681-017-1945-x.
    • Volin, R.B. 1971. Physiological race determination and environmental factors affecting the development of infection type in stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 85 p.
    • Wang, T. 2003. Chlorophyll degradation in wheat lines elicited by cereal aphid infestation. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 77 p.
    • Waters, D.K. 2003. Blending resistant and susceptible winter wheat for Wheat Stem Sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton) management. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State Univesity. 161 p.
    • Yount, D.J. 1982. The etiology and epidemiology of barley yellow dwarf virus in Montana: its importance and impact on small grain production. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 125 p.
    • Zuck, P.C. 2010. Evaluation of alternative crops for management of Pratylenchus neglectus in Montana winter wheat production. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 40 p.
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Cultivated Wheat — Triticum aestivum.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from