Reed Canarygrass - Phalaris arundinacea
Rhizomatous perennial. Stems mostly 90–200 cm tall, forming dense stands. Leaves: blades 6–18 mm wide, ligules 4–10 mm long. Inflorescences a contracted panicle 8–35 cm long. Spikelets 4–7 mm long. Lemmas with one hairless seed-bearing floret and two lower sterile florets that are each a minute scale covered with long hairs (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX)
Common throughout North America excepting some of the southeast (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
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(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Riparian and wetland habitats mostly at lower to middle elevations throughout the state (Lavin in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX)
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Baril, S.F. 1977. Benthic invertebrate distribution, abundance, and diversity in Rosebud Creek, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 97 p.
- Brey, C.W. 1998. Epidemiology of wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella K.) and wheat streak mosaic virus on feral grass species and effect of glyphosate on wheat curl mite dispersal. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 136 p.
- Flathead National Forest Personnel. Howellia aquatilis and Phalaris arundinacea Survey Forms from the U.S. Forest Service 1998-2008 Monitoring Study.
- Fritzen, D.E. 1995. Ecology and behavior of Mule Deer on the Rosebud Coal Mine, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 143 p.
- Hale, K.M. 2007. Investigations of the West Nile virus transmission cycle at Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, 2005-2006. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 74 p.
- Hodgson, J.R. 1970. Ecological distribution of Microtus montanus and Microtus pennsylvanicus in an area of geographic sympatry in southwestern Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 65 p.
- Hollenbeck, R.R. 1974. Growth rates and movements within a population of Rana pretiosa pretiosa Baird and Girard in south central Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 66 p.
- Kim, H.K. 1982. Epidemiological, genetical, and physiological studies of the bacterial leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens (J.J.R.) Dowson. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 83 p.
- Lesica, P. 1991. Monitoring Howellia aquatilis and Phalaris arundinacea at Swan River Oxbow Preserve. Progress report. The Nature Conservancy, Helena, Montana. 7 pp.
- Lesica, P. 1997. Spread of Phalaris arundinacea adversely impacts the endangered plant Howellia aquatilis. Great Basin Naturalist, 57(4): 366-368.
- Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
- Lindig-Cisneros, R., and J. B. Zedler. 2002. Phalaris arundinacea seedling establishment: effects of canopy complexity in fen, mesocosm, and restoration experiments. Canadian Journal of Botany 80:617-624.
- Mantas, M. 2000. Status of Water Howellia (Howellia aquatilis) and Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) in Water Howellia Ponds: 1998 and 1999, Swan Valley, Montana.
- Mantas, M. 2002. Status of water howellia (Howellia aquatilis) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) in water howellia ponds: 1998-2001. Flathead National Forest, MT.
- Merigliano, M.F. and P. Lesica. 1998. The native status of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in the inland Northwest, U.S.A. Natural Areas Journal, 18: 223-230.
- O'Connor, K.S. 1987. Ecology of white-tailed deer and mule deer in agricultural lands in the Gallatin Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 67 p.
- Quire, R.L. 2013. The sagebrush steppe of Montana and southeastern Idaho shows evidence of high native plant diversity, stability, and resistance to the detrimental effects of nonnative plant species. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 124 p.
- The Nature Conservancy Personnel. Howellia aquatilis and Phalaris arundinacea Survey Forms from The Nature Conservancy's 2009-2012 Monitoring Study.
- Tuinstra, K. E. 1967. Vegetation of the floodplains and first terraces of Rock Creek near Red Lodge, Montana. Ph.D dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman 110 pp.