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Montana Field Guides

Soft Rush - Juncus effusus
Other Names:  Juncus pylaei

Exotic Species (not native to Montana)

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNA
* (see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 6

External Links






State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Plants in Montana are Juncus effuses ssp. effusus. This subspecies is an aggressive introduced species from Europe, and has colonized in British Columbia and Idaho (Zika 2003).
 
General Description
Short-rhizomatous, caespitose. Stems erect, terete, hollow, 40–100 cm. Leaves mainly basal; blades reduced to a bristle; auricles absent; sheaths purple to brown. Inflorescence open or congested with numerous, pedicellate flowers; bract terete, erect, appearing like a continuation of the stem. Flowers with prophylls; tepals brown with green midvein, 2–3 mm long, acuminate; stamens 3. Capsules ca. 2 mm long, truncate on top; seeds apiculate (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Our plants are subspecies effusus, which is introduced from Europe. J. effusus ssp. effusus is distinguished by thin, green, symmetrical upper sheaths that are less than 14 centimeters long and have overlapping margins in the upper third. Also, this subspecies has spreading tepals (Zika 2003). See Zika 2003 for comparative illustrations and a key.

Range Comments
BC to MT south to CA, northeast N. America, Europe (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Habitat

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, editors. 2001. The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Volume 6. Monocotyledons (Acoraceae through Najadaceae). British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria.
    • Hurd, E.G., S. Goodrich, and N.L. Shaw. 1997. Field Guide to Intermountain Rushes. General Technical Report INT-306. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 56 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • McGregor, R.L., coordinator, and T.M. Barkley, R.E. Brooks, and E.K. Schofield, eds.: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: Univ. Press Kansas. 1392 pp.
    • Sturm, J. and J.G. Sturm. 1796. Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen (nur Tafeln). Stuttgart, Germany. 882 pp.
    • Zika, P.F. 2003. The native subspecies of Juncus effusus (Juncaceae) in western North America. Brittonia 55(2): 150-156.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. B13BRI01PAUS.
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Citation for data on this website:
Soft Rush — Juncus effusus.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from