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Grand Fir - Abies grandis

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Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5
* (see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
See rank details.
  • Details on Status Ranking and Review
    Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Conservation Status Review
    Review Date = 05/24/2012
    Population Size

    Score0 - Large: Generally >100,000 individuals.


    Range Extent

    Score0 - Widespread species within Montana (occurs in 5% or more of the state or generally occurring in 6 or more sub-basins.) as well as outside of Montana.


    Area of Occupancy

    Score0 - High: Occurs in >25 Subwatersheds (6th Code HUC’s).



    Score0 - Stable or Increasing: Population size, range, and/or available habitat stable, increasing or fluctuating in the recent past (approximately 30 years).



    Score0 - Low: Impacts, if any, to the species are expected to be minor or insignificant (affecting <10% of populations) in severity, scope and immediacy.


    Intrinsic Vulnerability

    Score0 - Low Vulnerability: Species does not have any unusual or specific life history or biological attributes or limted reproductive potential which makes it susceptible to extirpation from stochastic events or other adverse impacts to its habitat and thus slow to recover.


    Environmental Specificity

    Score0 - Low: Species is a generalist that occurs in a variety of habitats and/or is tolerant of disturbed or degraded habitats (C -Values of 1-4).


    Raw Conservation Status Score

    Score 0 total points scored out of a possible 19.

General Description
Tree up to ca. 50 m tall with a conical crown and branches that bend down and then out. Bark gray with reddish furrows, becoming brown in older trees. Leaves 2–4 cm long, blunt-tipped, borne in a single plane opposite each other on the twigs, erect. Stomates on underside only. Seed cones usually green, 6–11 cm long (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Range Comments
BC to CA, ID and MT (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 137

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)


Reproductive Characteristics
A prolific seeder. Regenerates well after disturbance.

  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
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    • Lesica, P. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.
    • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Grand Fir — Abies grandis.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program.  Retrieved on October 13, 2015, from
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