Northern Toadflax - Geocaulon lividum
Stems erect, simple,10–30 cm, usually solitary. Leaves short-petiolate, narrowly elliptic, 1–5 cm long. Inflorescence: 3 pedicellate flowers per axil of middle leaves. Flowers all apparently perfect, but some functionally male; hypanthium green to purple, ca. 1 mm long; sepals deltoid, 1–1.5 mm long. Fruit a red drupe, 5–10 mm long, solitary in leaf axils (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX)
AK to NL south to WA, MT, MN and NY (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Moist spruce forests, often bordering wetland areas, in the montane zone.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Chadde, Steve. Sensitive Plant Survey, Pinkham Analysis Area, Kootenai National Forest. Unpublished Report, 26 Pp. Plus Appendices.
- Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
- Warrington, P.D. 1970. The natural history of Parasitism of Geocaulon lividum (Santalaceae). Ph.D dissertation. University of British Columbia 157 pp.