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Montana Field Guides

Northern Toadflax - Geocaulon lividum
Other Names:  Comandra lividum

Potential Species of Concern
Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S3S4

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 7

External Links

General Description
Stems erect, simple,10–30 cm, usually solitary. Leaves short-petiolate, narrowly elliptic, 1–5 cm long. Inflorescence: 3 pedicellate flowers per axil of middle leaves. Flowers all apparently perfect, but some functionally male; hypanthium green to purple, ca. 1 mm long; sepals deltoid, 1–1.5 mm long. Fruit a red drupe, 5–10 mm long, solitary in leaf axils (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range

Range Comments
AK to NL south to WA, MT, MN and NY (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 63

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Moist spruce forests, often bordering wetland areas, in the montane zone.

  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Chadde, Steve. Sensitive Plant Survey, Pinkham Analysis Area, Kootenai National Forest. Unpublished Report, 26 Pp. Plus Appendices.
    • Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Warrington, P.D. 1970. The natural history of Parasitism of Geocaulon lividum (Santalaceae). Ph.D dissertation. University of British Columbia 157 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Northern Toadflax — Geocaulon lividum.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from