One-side Wintergreen - Orthilia secunda
Pyrola secunda, Ramischia secunda
MNPS Threat Rank
Rhizomatous, caulescent, evergreen, herbaceous subshrub from an elongate rhizome. Stems herbaceous, to 25 cm, unbranched. Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing subopposite or pseudo-whorled, petiolate; blades to 5 cm long, widest below the midlength. Inflorescence of few to many flowers borne on a terminal, one-sided raceme, arching at anthesis, erect in fruit. Flowers hypogynous, 5-merous, nodding; calyx lobes rounded, whitish; corolla cup-shaped; petals distinct, elliptic, to 5 mm long, white to greenish tinged; stamens 10; stigma shield-shaped, 5-lobed; style straight; ovary superior. Fruit a nodding, globose, 5-chambered capsule (Stickney in Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX)
Often included in the genus Pyrola, but distinguished by raceme one-sided (vs. cylindrical); corolla campanulate, longer than broad (vs. subglobose or short-campanulate, broader than long).
Circumboreal; in North America, Greenland and Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio, northern Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Historically reported in Virginia, Ohio, and Delaware; extirpated in Indiana. Isolated populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental and in the Flora Neotropica area in Jalisco, the high mountains of south-central Mexico (the Neovolcanic Belt and southern Sierra MAdre Oriental), and south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the mountains of Chiapas and western Guatemala at elevations of (1850-) 2000-4038 m.
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
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- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Conway, T.M. 1982. Response of understory vegetation to varied lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) spacing intervals in Western Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bpzeman, MT: Montana State University. 76 p.
- Cope, M.G. 1992. Distribution, habitat selection and survival of transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) in the Tobacco Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 60 p.
- Dale, D. 1973. Effects of trail use under forests in the Madison Range, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 96 pp.
- Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's manual of botany. 8th ed. Van Nostrand Company, New York.
- Forcella, F. 1977. Flora, chorology, biomass and productivity of the Pinus albicaulis-Vaccinium scoparium association. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 99 pp.
- Fultz, J.E. 2005. Effects of shelterwood management on flower-visiting insects and their floral resources. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 163 p.
- Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 910 pp.
- Jones, W. W. 1901. Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College. 78 pp.
- Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
- Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980-1981. A flora of New Mexico. 2 vols. J. Cramer, in der A.R. Gantner Verlag, K.G., Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 2591 pp.
- McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.
- Porsild, A.E., and W.J. Cody. 1980. Vascular plants of continental Northwest Territories, Canada. National Museum Natural Sciences, National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 667 pp.
- Simanonok, M. 2018. Plant-pollinator network assembly after wildfire. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 123 p.
- Weber, W.A. 1990. Colorado Flora: eastern slope. Univ. Press Colorado, Niwot. 396 pp.
- Wood, M.A. 1981. Small mammal communities after two recent fires in Yellowstone National Park. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 58 p.