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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Candystick - Allotropa virgata

Potential Species of Concern

Global Rank: G4
State Rank: S3S4
* (see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value:

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State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Limited distribution and small population sizes make the species potentially vulnerable to impacts to its habitat, primary lodgepole pine stands. Trend and monitoring data for the species are lacking. However, populations are presumed to be relatively stable at the present time.
 
General Description
Candystick has pink and white-striped stems, 1-4 dm high and 5-10 mm thick. Stems are clothed in white to pinkish, alternate, lance-shaped leaves that are largest near mid-stem. Flowers are borne in tight clusters in the axils of the upper leaves (bracts). Each flower has 5 separate white to pinkish sepals, ca. 5 mm long, and 10 purple stamens. Petals are lacking. The 5-lobed ovary matures to form a many-seeded capsule.

Phenology
Flowering in July and August.

Diagnostic Characteristics
The pink and white stems lacking green leaves are distinctive.

Species Range
Present
 


Range Comments
Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains and the coastal ranges of California, north to British Columbia from the eastern slope of the Cascade Range to near the coast; disjunct in Idaho and southwestern Montana. Disjunct.

Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 224

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Deep humus of mature, usually lodgepole pine forests in the montane zone.

Ecology
Allotropa virgata lacks chlorophyll and it obtains nutrients from other vascular plants through a mycorrhizal (fungal) association. Matsutake mushroom mycelium are reported as the mycorrhizal associate.

Management
Suitable management practices that maintains lodgepole pine stands and associated litter/duff layers in which the mycorrhizal associate are located are neccassary.

Threats or Limiting Factors
Large-scale loss of lodgepole pine stands in western Montana would detrimenally impact this species' long-term viability in Montana.

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Castellano, M. A., and J. M. Trappe. 1985. Mycorrhizal associations of five species of Monotropoideae in Oregon. Mycologia 77(3): 499-502.
    • Furman, T. E. and J. M. Trappe. 1971. Phylogeny and ecology of mycotrophic achlorophyllous angiosperms. Quarterly Review of Biology 46:219-225.
    • Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Lichthardt, J.J. 1992. Population monitoring of Allotropa virgata (candystick) on the Nez Perce National Forest: third-year results. Unpublished report. Idaho Department of Fish and Game. Boise, Idaho. 21 pp.
    • Lichthardt, J.J. 1995. Conservation strategy for Allotropa virgata (candystick), Northern and Intermountain Regions, U.S. Forest Service. Unpublished report to U.S. Forest Service. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Boise, Idaho. 24 pp. plus appendics.
    • Lorain, C. C. 1988. Floristic history and distribution of coastal disjunct plants of the northern Rocky Mountains. M.S. thesis. College of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow. 221 pp.
    • Poole, J.M. 1992. Results of field surveys for Allotropa virgata on the Beaverhead and Deerlodge National Forests. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 11 pp. plus appendix.
    • Roe, L.S. 1992. Status review of Allotropa virgata, Deerlodge and Beaverhead National Forest. Unpublished report, Montana Natural Heritage Program 13pp.
    • Steele, R. and P.F. Stickney. 1974. Allotropa virgata (Ericaceae), first records for Idaho and Montana. Madrono 22(5):277.
    • Takahashi, H. 1987. Pollen morphology and its taxonomic significance of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae).
    • Wallace, G. D. 1977. Studies of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) Floral nectares: anatomy and function in pollination ecology. American Journal of Botany 64:199-206.
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Citation for data on this website:
Candystick — Allotropa virgata.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from