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Montana Field Guides

American Winter-cress - Barbarea orthoceras

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4
* (see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 4

External Links






State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
S4 non-SOC: Barbarea orthoceras appears to be present through much of central and western Montana.
  • Details on Status Ranking and Review
    American Winter-cress (Barbarea orthoceras) Conservation Status Review
    Review Date = 09/23/2016
    View State Conservation Rank Criteria
    Population Size

    ScoreU - Unknown

    Range Extent

    ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 sq km (~8,000-80,000 sq mi)

    Area of Occupancy

    ScoreE - 26-125 4-km2 grid cells

    Number of Populations

    ScoreC - 21 - 80

    Number of Occurrences or Percent Area with Good Viability / Ecological Integrity

    ScoreC - Few (4-12) occurrences with excellent or good viability or ecological integrity

    Environmental Specificity

    ScoreC - Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce

    Long-term Trend

    ScoreU - Unknown

    Trends

    ScoreU - Unknown

    Threats

    ScoreD - Low

    CommentThreat categories include: Housing & urban areas, Annual & perennial non-timber crops.

    Intrinsic Vulnerability

    ScoreC - Not intrinsically vulnerable

 
General Description
Plants: Glabrous to sparingly-haired bienniel herb with a taproot (Hitchcock et al. 1964) Stems angled, unbranched or branched above (McGregor et al. 1986), erect, 20–50 cm tall (Lesica 2012).

Leaves: Basal leaves 4–12 cm in length, oblong with 1 to 6 pairs of lateral lobes with sinuate margins. Stem leaves pinnately lobed or divided, reduced upward (Lesica 2012).

Inflorescence: Dense racemes; pedicels thick or club-shaped, up to 1 mm in length (McGregor et al. 1986).

(P. Lesica's contribution adapted from Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.)

Phenology
Flowers March-July (FNA 2010).

Range Comments
AK to NL south to CA, AZ, MN, NH; Asia (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 6

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Scree, rocky bluffs (FNA 2010), moist soil of thickets, wet meadows, along streams, wetlands, open forest; valleys to lower subalpine (Lesica 2012).

(Lesica's contribution adapted from Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.)

Reproductive Characteristics
Flowers: Sepals light yellow-green, 2 mm in length (Hitchcock et al. 1964), upright, oblong; petals light yellow (McGregor et al. 1986), 3–6 mm in length (Lesica 2012).

Fruits: Siliques 15–25 mm in length, up to 1 mm in width, 4-angled, erect or spreading, with a beak 2 mm in length (Lesica 2012); valve with prominent midnerve (Hitchcock et al. 1964). Seeds brown, minutely wrinkled, 0.8-1 mm in width (McGregor et al. 1986).

(P. Lesica's contribution adapted from Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.)

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. 832 pp.
    • Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J. W. Thompson. 1964. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 597 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M. T. Lavin, and P. F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • McGregor, R.L., coordinator, and T.M. Barkley, R.E. Brooks, and E.K. Schofield, eds.: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: Univ. Press Kansas. 1392 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
American Winter-cress — Barbarea orthoceras.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from