American Winter-cress - Barbarea orthoceras
(see State Rank Reason below)
MNPS Threat Rank
State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
S4 non-SOC: Barbarea orthoceras appears to be present through much of central and western Montana.
- Details on Status Ranking and Review
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreF - 20,000-200,000 sq km (~8,000-80,000 sq mi)
Area of Occupancy
ScoreE - 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Number of Populations
ScoreC - 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences or Percent Area with Good Viability / Ecological Integrity
ScoreC - Few (4-12) occurrences with excellent or good viability or ecological integrity
ScoreC - Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreD - Low
CommentThreat categories include: Housing & urban areas, Annual & perennial non-timber crops.
ScoreC - Not intrinsically vulnerable
Plants: Glabrous to sparingly-haired bienniel herb with a taproot (Hitchcock et al. 1964) Stems angled, unbranched or branched above (McGregor et al. 1986), erect, 20–50 cm tall (Lesica 2012).
Leaves: Basal leaves 4–12 cm in length, oblong with 1 to 6 pairs of lateral lobes with sinuate margins. Stem leaves pinnately lobed or divided, reduced upward (Lesica 2012).
Inflorescence: Dense racemes; pedicels thick or club-shaped, up to 1 mm in length (McGregor et al. 1986). (P. Lesica's contribution adapted from Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.)
Flowers March-July (FNA 2010).
AK to NL south to CA, AZ, MN, NH; Asia (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).
Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Scree, rocky bluffs (FNA 2010), moist soil of thickets, wet meadows, along streams, wetlands, open forest; valleys to lower subalpine (Lesica 2012).(Lesica's contribution adapted from Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.)
The following animal species have been reported as pollinators of this plant species or its genus where their geographic ranges overlap: Bombus insularis
(Thorp et al. 1983).
Flowers: Sepals light yellow-green, 2 mm in length (Hitchcock et al. 1964), upright, oblong; petals light yellow (McGregor et al. 1986), 3–6 mm in length (Lesica 2012).
Fruits: Siliques 15–25 mm in length, up to 1 mm in width, 4-angled, erect or spreading, with a beak 2 mm in length (Lesica 2012); valve with prominent midnerve (Hitchcock et al. 1964). Seeds brown, minutely wrinkled, 0.8-1 mm in width (McGregor et al. 1986). (P. Lesica's contribution adapted from Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX.)
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. 832 pp.
- Great Plains Flora Association (McGregor, R.L., coordinator, and T.M. Barkley, R.E. Brooks, and E.K. Schofield - eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: Univ. Press Kansas. 1392 pp.
- Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J. W. Thompson. 1964. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 597 pp.
- Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
- Thorp, R.W., D.S. Horning, and L.L. Dunning. 1983. Bumble bees and cuckoo bumble bees of California (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 23:1-79.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Ament, R.J. 1995. Pioneer Plant Communities Five Years After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 216 p.
- Fultz, J.E. 2005. Effects of shelterwood management on flower-visiting insects and their floral resources. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 163 p.
- Stoecker, R.E. 1967. A population study of five species of small rodents in the Bridger Mountains of Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 32 p.
- Tuinstra, K. E. 1967. Vegetation of the floodplains and first terraces of Rock Creek near Red Lodge, Montana. Ph.D dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman 110 pp.