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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Bog Birch - Betula pumila

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNR

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 6

External Links

General Description
Shrubs usually 3–4 m high. Twigs short-pubescent, densely glandular. Leaf blades cuneate with crenate margins, 1–4 cm long, glandular, paler beneath. Female catkins 10–25 mm long. Fruit with wings nearly as wide as nutlet. If subspecies are recognized then ours are var. glandulifera Regel (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Very similar to Betula glandulosa and often difficult to separate from it.

Species Range

Range Comments
Scattered in western third of MT; YT to NS south to CA, CO, IL, NJ (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 74

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

Wet, organic soil of swamps, fens; valleys to lower montane (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Burkholder, B.O. 2015. Seasonal distribution, winter habitat selection and willow utilization patterns of the Shiras Moose on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 262 p.
    • Burkholder, B.O., N.J. DeCesare, R.A. Garrot, and S.J. Boccadori. 2017. Heterogeneity and power to detect trends in Moose browse utilization of willow communities. ALCES 53:23-29.
    • Johnson, T. W. 1982. An analysis of pack and saddle stock grazing areas in the Bob Marshall Wilderness. M.Sc.Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 105 p.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
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Citation for data on this website:
Bog Birch — Betula pumila.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from