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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Spring Birch - Betula occidentalis

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4S5
(see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 5

External Links






State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
Common across most western and many central counties. Rank may be partly based on hybrids involving this and B. papyrifera.
 
General Description
Small tree or large shrub to ca. 8 m tall with gray to brown bark, only slightly peeling. Twigs glandular, sparsely short-hairy. Leaf blades 2–5 cm long, glandular when young, sparsely white-hairy, rounded to pointed at the tip with sharp-dentate margins. Female catkins 15–25 mm long. Fruit with wings ca. as wide as nutlet (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range

Year-round
 


Range Comments
Western two-thirds of MT and Dawson County; AK and NT to ON, south to CA and NM, east to the Dakotas (Furlow, 1997, in Flora N. Amer. Vol. 3) (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX)

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 293

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Margins of streams and wetlands; plains, valleys, occasionally montane (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Jones, W. W. 1901. Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College. 78 pp.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.
    • Lovaas, A.L. 1957. Mule deer food habits and range use in the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 43 p.
    • Martin, S.A. 1985. Ecology of the Rock Creek bighorn sheep herd, Beartooth Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 152 p.
    • Martinka, R.R. 1970. Structural characteristics and ecological relationships of male blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus (Say)) territories in southwestern Montana. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 73 p.
    • McClure, W.V. 1991. Initial effects of streambank stabilization on a small trout stream. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 93 p.
    • Salix, J.L. 2004. Lichens and their distribution in Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 74 p.
    • South, P.R. 1957. Food habits and range use of the mule deer in the Scudder Creek area, Beaverhead County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 34 p.
    • Stivers, T.S. 1988. Effects of livestock grazing on grizzly bear habitat along the east front of the Rocky Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 80 p.
    • Tuinstra, K. E. 1967. Vegetation of the floodplains and first terraces of Rock Creek near Red Lodge, Montana. Ph.D dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman 110 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Spring Birch — Betula occidentalis.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from